• enzymes
  • Whether or not a nucleotide synthase ribozyme had measurable nucleobase binding affinity, all families of nucleotide synthetase ribozymes were extremely sensitive to nucleobase modification and showed surprising parallels to the substrate preferences of highly evolved protein nucleotide synthase enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • uracil
  • For example, the family A pyrimidine nucleotide synthetase ribozyme was ~10,000 times slower with uracil than with 4-thiouracil and reactivity with 2-thiocytosine, 2-thiopyrimidine, 2-thiopyridine and 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil could not be detected (Figure 3). (nih.gov)
  • reaction
  • The arrows point to reaction efficiencies for ribozymes with the indicated substrate molecule: red arrows indicate the MA purine nucleotide synthetase ribozyme reaction efficiencies, purple indicates the RA purine nucleotide synthetase ribozyme, blue indicates the Family A pyrimidine nucleotide synthethase ribozyme and green indicates the improved a15 ribozyme derived from the Family A ribozyme by reselection. (nih.gov)
  • amino acids
  • In another series of publications on chemical evolution, Ferris further expanded the understanding of these and other reactions, demonstrating, for example, mechanisms of hydrogen cyanide polymerization under a variety of conditions leading to purines, pyrimidines, amino acids, and a host of organic precursor molecules. (wikipedia.org)