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  • protons
  • that is, it captures light energy and uses it to move protons across the membrane out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The passage of the electron through the electron transport chain also results in the pumping of protons (hydrogen ions) from the chloroplast's stroma and into the lumen, resulting in a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane that can be used to synthesise ATP using the ATP synthase molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystals
  • Aaron Klug suggested in 1979 that a technique that was originally developed for structure determination of membrane protein structures can also be used for structure determination of inorganic crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • In 1935, Davson and Danielli proposed that biological membranes are made up of lipid bi-layers that are coated on both sides with thin sheets of protein and they simplified their model into the "pauci-molecular" theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory declared that all biological membranes have a "lipoid" center surrounded by mono-layers of lipid that are covered by protein mono-layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • O.Marina was originally believed to be a heterotroph, however the proteorhodopsin may well partake in a functionally significant manner, as it was the most abundantly expressed nuclear gene and, furthermore, is dispersed unevenly in the organism, suggesting some organelle membrane function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental
  • Experimental phase-contrast images on purple membrane and ϕ29 viral capsids in buffer solution are used to verify the theoretical findings by linking these images with the local variations of the sample stiffness. (pnas.org)
  • Following intense experimental research, the membrane models of the preceding century gave way to the fluid mosaic model that is accepted today. (wikipedia.org)
  • solar
  • The purple membranes, amino acids and urea were not measurably affected by the dehydrating condition of open space, if sheltered from solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • The resulting change in charge across the membrane is similar to what happens when a neuron fires, although single-celled microbes use the protein for other purposes, such as guiding their movement relative to light sources, not transmitting brain signals. (pnas.org)
  • This is called the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) which has increased surface area to maximize light absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • available
  • Until now, there was no general protocol available to address membrane proteomes as a whole, demonstrating their degree of difficulty and complexity. (mcponline.org)
  • challenges
  • We initially posted this as a silent movie to accompany our interview with professor Schulten in which he addresses his scientific research interests both past and present, his perspective on some of the key challenges for the field of membrane protein biophysics in the coming 5-10 years, his keynote lecture, and the Membrane Protein Structural Dynamics Consortium. (memprotein.org)
  • Nevertheless the intricate analysis of membrane subproteomes still represents one of the major challenges despite the amount of "success" reported in the literature. (mcponline.org)
  • models
  • Liposomes first described in 1965 (1) and initially used as excellent models for studying membranes have been considered more frequently as vehicles for medical drugs during the last 10 years (2). (springer.com)