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  • agonist
  • B) The infection index was also reduced after treatment with MRS 2693, a specific P2Y6 agonist, and MRS 2693 effect was totally blocked by pre-treatment with the specific P2Y6 antagonist MRS 2578. (nih.gov)
  • The 20, 50, 100 represent on the x-axis concentration of the agonist/antagonist. (nih.gov)
  • Signaling
  • Purinergic signaling is important not only in short-term regulation of vascular tone but also in long-term regulation of vascular remodeling (i.e., vascular cell proliferation, migration, and death) [ 15 - 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. (nih.gov)
  • extracellular
  • These pathological conditions can be associated with disturbance in the signaling mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides of adenine, in expression or activity of extracellular ectonucleotidases and in activation of P2X and P2Y receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • Purinergic signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purinergic signalling system consists of transporters, enzymes and receptors responsible for the synthesis, release, action, and extracellular inactivation of (primarily) ATP and its extracellular breakdown product adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of NTs: Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs): Na+-dependent symporters Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs): Na+-independent passive transporters The extracellular concentration of adenosine can be regulated by NTs, possibly in the form of a feedback loop connecting receptor signaling with transporter function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological
  • The first evidence of purinergic signaling was described in 1929, when purines were found to underlie physiological responses in the circulatory and digestive system. (springer.com)
  • P2X 7 R −/− mice failed to increase surfactant secretion in response to hyperventilation, pointing to the physiological relevance of P2X 7 R in maintaining surfactant homeostasis in the lung. (biologists.org)
  • glutamate
  • The activation of P2X 7 receptors elicits Ca 2+ influx, which is followed by increased glutamate and subsequent GABA release [ 8 - 10 ] that could reinforce glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity under pathological conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This occurs with a lower probability than that of glutamate, and evokes unitary currents about half the amplitude of those mediated through AMPA receptors. (rupress.org)
  • In neurones cultured from the lateral hypothalamus of the embryonic chick or neonatal mouse, spontaneous mEPSCs have also been observed in the presence of blockers of glutamate and GABA receptors ( Jo and Role, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
  • ectonucleotidases
  • Released nucleotides can be hydrolyzed extracellularly by a variety of cell surface-located enzymes referred to as ectonucleotidases that control purinergic signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathological
  • Therefore, a complete understanding of purinergic system could potentially unveil possible markers or relevant pathways for pathological processes, mainly related to human degeneration. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, P2Y receptor signaling is likely to play a role in mechanosensation and/or nociception under normal and pathological conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • homomeric
  • In contrast, ATP, acting at sensory neuron-specific homomeric and heteromeric P2X 3 -containing channels, contributes to neural excitability, is pronociceptive, and likely participates in the sensitization of the central nervous system during chronic pain. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Natural products have provided some fascinating new mechanisms and sources to better understand the P2 receptor antagonism. (mdpi.com)
  • A438079
  • Antagonists of both pannexin-1 (carbenoxolone and mefloquine) and P2X(7) receptors (brilliant blue G and A438079) blocked ATP pre- and postconditioning, indicating that ATP protection was elicited via the opening of a pannexin-1/P2X(7) channel. (nih.gov)
  • inhibitor
  • To further examine the effects of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway on central sensitization of CM, we examined MCC950, an NLRP3 inflammasome-specific inhibitor, and IL-1ra, an IL-1β antagonist, whether altered NTG-induced mechanical hyperalgesia of the periorbital area and hind paw. (springer.com)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, P2X 7 receptors are involved in the processing and release of other key mediators in neurodegeneration, such as interleukin-1β, [ 2 , 14 ], and in the production of endocannabinoids, which are neuroprotective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • endogenous
  • Previous studies revealed that a complex of pannexin-1 with the P2X(7) receptor forms a channel during ischemic preconditioning and ischemic postconditioning that results in the release of endogenous cardioprotectants. (nih.gov)
  • Although the endogenous amino acid content remained unchanged, the level of the endocannabinoid, 2-AG, was elevated by rotenone in the striatum of wild-type mice, an effect that was absent in mice deficient in P2X 7 receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • contribution
  • Point mutations within this region highlighted the contribution of a P2X7R-specific aspartic acid residue (D280) that modeling suggests forms a salt bridge with the lower body region of the receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The majority of evidence has pointed to a contribution of the CB 1 receptor in mediating the analgesic effects of cannabinoids. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • mice
  • In vivo MPTP and in vitro rotenone pretreatments increased the mRNA expression of P2X 7 receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra of wild-type mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rotenone treatment elicited a similar reduction in ATP content in the substantia nigra of both genotypes, whereas reduction of ATP was more pronounced after rotenone treatment in striatal slices of P2X 7 deficient mice. (biomedcentral.com)