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  • free-living p
  • Intestinal and free-living protozoa, such as Giardia lamblia , express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite inside the host's intestine. (nature.com)
  • The Legionnaire's disease bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, is a facultative intracellular pathogen which invades and replicates within two evolutionarily distant hosts, free-living protozoa and mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • Lipids
  • alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane Proteins
  • VSPs are integral membrane proteins consisting of an extracellular variable region rich in cysteine (mainly as CXXC motifs), a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail 10 . (nature.com)
  • In this experiment, several previously uncharacterized membrane proteins were selected to be screened. (wikipedia.org)
  • These uncharacterized membrane proteins were assayed for glucose transport ability by expression in HEK293T (human embryonic kidney) cells, which have negligible glucose transport ability in the normal state. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membrane proteins were co-expressed with a fluorescent FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) glucose sensor localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Consequently, for oral immunization to be effective, protein antigens must be protected from the harsh environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). (nature.com)
  • Giardia
  • UPF1, a conserved nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor, regulates cyst wall protein transcripts in Giardia lamblia. (nih.gov)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entamoeba
  • One of the tyrosine dephosphorylated proteins was identified as the 170-kD galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-inhibitable lectin (Gal/GalNAc) using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting by antibodies generated against the Gal/GalNAc lectin of the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. (nih.gov)
  • vermiformis
  • Identification of a Gal/GalNAc lectin in the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis as a potential receptor for attachment and invasion by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • To define the molecular events involved in invasion of protozoa by L. pneumophila, we examined the role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of the protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis upon attachment and invasion by L. pneumophila. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, inhibition of invasion by Gal and GalNAc was associated with inhibition of bacterial-induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of H. vermiformis proteins. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that attachment of L. pneumophila to the H. vermiformis 170-kD lectin is required for invasion and is associated with tyrosine dephosphorylation of the Gal lectin and other host proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of the 170-kD protein of H. vermiformis which is dephosphorylated upon contact and invasion by L. pneumophila. (nih.gov)
  • animals
  • Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of Protozoa as a formal taxon has been discouraged by some recent researchers, mainly because the term, which is formed from the Greek protos "first" + zoia, plural of zoion, "animal", implies kinship with animals (metazoa) and promotes an arbitrary separation of "animal-like" from "plant-like" organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Goldfuss erected Protozoa as a class containing what he believed to be the simplest animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1860, John Hogg argued against the use of "protozoa", on the grounds that "naturalists are divided in opinion-and probably some will ever continue so-whether many of these organisms, or living beings, are animals or plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • The generalized reaction catalyzed by known proteins of this family is: sugars (in) ⇌ sugars (out) SWEETs were originally identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, in a screen for novel facilitators of transmembrane glucose transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin cytoskeleton
  • Although uncapping of barbed ends by capping protein has been proposed as a mechanism for the generation of free barbed ends after stimulation, in vitro and in situ analysis of the association of capping protein with the actin cytoskeleton after stimulation reveals that capping protein enters, but does not exit, the cytoskeleton during the initiation of actin polymerization. (nih.gov)
  • In this model, exposure of free barbed ends results in actin assembly, followed by entry of free capping protein into the actin cytoskeleton, which acts to terminate, not initiate, the actin polymerization transient. (nih.gov)
  • This form of cellular motion requires profilin, an actin filament binding protein that helps restructure the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface
  • The surface of T. gondii is coated with a family of developmentally regulated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins (SRSs), of which SAG1 is the prototypic member. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capping
  • Increased association of capping protein with regions of the cell containing free barbed ends as visualized by exogenous rhodamine-labeled G-actin is also observed after stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, a mechanism in which preexisting filaments are uncapped by capping protein, in response to stimulation leading to the generation of free barbed ends and filament elongation, is not supported. (nih.gov)
  • Association of capping protein with the low and high speed Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton after stimulation at 10°C in the presence and absence of phalloidin. (nih.gov)
  • The low speed or high speed cytoskeleton pellets were resuspended on ice in 20% lysate volume and Western blotted using anti-capping protein-α antibodies followed by densitometry. (nih.gov)
  • receptor
  • This is the first demonstration of a potential receptor used by L. pneumophila to invade protozoa. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • The inositol phosphate (IP3) accumulation, aequorin, and 35S isotope binding assays in overexpressing HEK293 cells have demonstrated coupling of GPR97 to Gαo protein triggering cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the protein makes up about 96% of the red blood cells' dry content (by weight), and around 35% of the total content (including water). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1851, German physiologist Otto Funke published a series of articles in which he described growing hemoglobin crystals by successively diluting red blood cells with a solvent such as pure water, alcohol or ether, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent from the resulting protein solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric oxide
  • The molecule also carries the important regulatory molecule nitric oxide bound to a globin protein thiol group, releasing it at the same time as oxygen. (wikipedia.org)