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  • estrogen receptor
  • The inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) α action with the ER antagonist tamoxifen is an established treatment in the majority of breast cancers. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Biological molecular markers such as proto-oncogene erbB-2 (HER-2/neu, c-erbB-2), the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), estrogen receptor (ER), Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), DNA topoisomerase II (topo II), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed for changes after administration of neochemotherapy and whether these protein expression changes were correlated with response to chemotherapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • tumor
  • Growth factor receptor expression and activation, particularly for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), in many endocrine and nonendocrine tumors is important in determining tumor recurrence, growth, and aggressiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, an increase in oncogenic potential and a broadening of the tissue specificity of tumor formation occurs after retroviral transduction of erbB. (umassmed.edu)
  • Our results suggest that the currently identified genetic polymorphisms of HER-2 are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Korean women, whereas one haplotype does affect protein expression of the tumor and disease outcome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alterations of this gene are found in more than 20% of breast tumors and have been shown to be associated with steroid hormone receptor-negative tumors, higher nuclear and histologic grades, tumor aneuploidy, higher rates of proliferation, a reduced response to chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, and poorer prognoses ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To experimentally address the potential involvement of AP-2 in mammary gland tumorigenesis, we generated mice overexpressing AP-2γ by transgenesis using the mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat as the transgene-driving promoter unit. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also compared age at diagnosis and tumor histologic grade with IHC and CISH Her-2/ neu . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, although the small group of well-differentiated tumors was apparently Her-2/ neu negative in both tests, no significant association was noted between any tumor histologic grade and either IHC or CISH results. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Her-2/ neu testing should be done on all breast cancer cases regardless of age at presentation and tumor histologic grade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • herstatin
  • Herstatin, as the product of alternative HER-2 transcript, retains intron 8. (prospecbio.com)
  • The herstatin mRNA is expressed in normal human fetal kidney and liver, but is at reduced levels relative to p185HER-2 mRNA in carcinoma cells that contain an amplified HER-2 gene. (prospecbio.com)
  • Herstatin appears to be an inhibitor of p185HER-2, because it disrupts dimers, reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of p185, and inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of transformed cells that overexpress HER-2. (prospecbio.com)
  • transfection
  • moreover, the erbB-2 promoter was shown to contain an AP-2 binding site and could be transactivated by AP-2 proteins in cell transfection studies ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • ligand
  • However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Protein tyrosine kinase that is part of several cell surface receptor complexes, but that apparently needs a coreceptor for ligand binding. (abcam.com)
  • GP30 is a potential ligand for this receptor. (abcam.com)
  • Receptors of this family are located on the plasma membrane and consist of an extracellular ligand-binding domain that is connected to a large intracellular domain by a single transmembrane sequence. (mybiosource.com)
  • oncogenic
  • Increased oncogenic potential of ErbB is associated with the loss of a" by Steven J. Theroux, Cherie A. Taglienti et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Amplification
  • Her-2/ neu gene amplification is primarily detected by in situ hybridization and uses fluorescence (FISH) to detect the signals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CISH is potentially able to detect Her-2/ neu gene amplification and to minimize, if not eliminate, the false positive fraction with the IHC procedure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • downstream
  • GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). (cellsignal.com)
  • These sites serve as consensus binding sites for signal transducing proteins, including Src family members, Grb2, and the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, which mediate ErbB downstream signaling (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • MAPK
  • Proteomic analysis showed that stromal secretion of the growth factor hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) resulted in activation of the HGF receptor MET, reactivation of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, and immediate resistance to RAF inhibition. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • promoter
  • Associates with the 5'-TCAAATTC-3' sequence in the PTGS2/COX-2 promoter and activates its transcription. (abcam.com)
  • Furthermore, AP-2 can abrogate the estrogen-mediated repression of the erbB-2 gene by binding to the critical estrogen response element in the promoter region ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • transcription
  • Transcription Factor AP-2γ Stimulates Proliferation and Apoptosis and Impairs Differentiation in a Transgenic Model11Grants from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Scho 503) and HGF (SGF01SF9808) to H.S. supported this work. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-2 transcription factors play pivotal roles in orchestrating embryonic development by influencing the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, AP-2 transcription factors have been implicated in carcinogenesis, a process where the normal growth and differentiation program of cells is disturbed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results suggest a role of AP-2 transcription factors in the maintenance of a proliferative and undifferentiated state of cells, characteristics not only important during embryonic development but also in tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)