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  • mRNA
  • Myc mRNA contains an IRES (internal ribosome entry site) that allows the RNA to be translated into protein when 5' cap-dependent translation is inhibited, such as during viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of CPE binding protein (CPEB) to this region promotes the extension of the existing polyadenine tail and, in general, activation of the mRNA for protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A longer poly(A) tail attracts more cytoplasmic polyadenine binding proteins (PABPs) which interact with several other cytoplasmic proteins that encourage the mRNA and the ribosome to associate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study done on mRNA regulation during oogenesis in Drosophila has revealed that the CPE and CPE binding proteins help control the timing of protein production during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oocytes transcribe a large portion of their mRNA at one time and rely on other control mechanisms to determine the timing of protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Synthetic peptides, native or recombinant proteins can be used for medical, academic and research purposes, such as gene therapy, drug screening, antibody production, cell function analysis. (abbkine.com)
  • Chromosome
  • Another example of an oncogene is the Bcr-Abl gene found on the Philadelphia chromosome, a piece of genetic material seen in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia caused by the translocation of pieces from chromosomes 9 and 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • More information about the Philadelphia Chromosome below) The proto-oncogene can become an oncogene by a relatively small modification of its original function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoma
  • A common human translocation involving Myc is critical to the development of most cases of Burkitt lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc gene was first discovered in Burkitt lymphoma patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MYC gene is implicated in Burkitt's lymphoma, which starts when a chromosomal translocation moves an enhancer sequence within the vicinity of the MYC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bcl-2 derives its name from B-cell lymphoma 2, as it is the second member of a range of proteins initially described in chromosomal translocations involving chromosomes 14 and 18 in follicular lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • But simultaneous over-expression of Bcl-2 and the proto-oncogene myc may produce aggressive B-cell malignancies including lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • This gene encodes a protein that binds to the hepatocyte growth factor receptor to regulate cell growth, cell motility and morphogenesis in numerous cell and tissue types. (cancerindex.org)
  • This means that in addition to its role as a classical transcription factor, Myc also functions to regulate global chromatin structure by regulating histone acetylation both in gene-rich regions and at sites far from any known gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functions of Myc-nick are currently under investigation, but this new Myc family member was found to regulate cell morphology, at least in part, by interacting with acetyl transferases to promote the acetylation of α-tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhancer
  • Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p42/44 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2) and inhibitor of kappa light chain gene enhancer alpha (IĸBα) was determined by western blotting as these events are associated with early signaling cascades. (cancerindex.org)
  • Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, is essential for the heart, motor neuron and pancreas development. (nih.gov)
  • Real-time PCR, Western blot, luciferase assay and ChIP assay were used to explore the potential regulatory targets of ISL-1 and the results demonstrated that ISL-1 activated the c-Myc expression in NHL by direct binding to a conserved binding site on the c-Myc enhancer. (nih.gov)
  • Isoforms
  • However, results in the ability of these isoforms to bind to the BAD and BAK proteins, as well as in the structural topology and electrostatic potential of the binding groove, suggest differences in antiapoptotic activity for the two isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Thus, the newfound cellular gene was named c-Myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bishop and Varmus were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1989 for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research on Hsp90A focuses in its role as a drug target due to its interaction with a large number of tumor promoting proteins and its role in cellular stress adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-2 is localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria, where it plays an important role in promoting cellular survival and inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • The histone methyltransferase Setd8 acts in concert with c-Myc and is required to maintain skin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Myc-nick contains binding domains for histone acetyltransferases and for ubiquitin ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins such as coactivators, chromatin remodelers, histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, kinases, and methylases are also essential to gene regulation, but lack DNA-binding domains, and therefore are not TFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mechanisms include: stabilize or block the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA catalyze the acetylation or deacetylation of histone proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Other known substrates/binding partners of Pim-1 include proteins involved in transcription regulation (nuclear adaptor protein p100, HP-1, PAP-1 and TRAF2 / SNX6), and regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway (SOCS1 and SOCS3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • The encoded protein is involved in recognition of the DNA substrate, but stable binding and cleavage activity also requires RAG2. (cancerindex.org)
  • Upon cleavage, the C-terminus of Myc (containing the DNA binding domain) is degraded, while Myc-nick, the N-terminal segment 298-residue segment remains in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein consists of four conserved domains (RNA-Binding Domain (TRBD), fingers, palm and thumb), organized into a ring configuration that shares common features with retroviral reverse transcriptases, viral RNA polymerases and bacteriophage B-family DNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These TTAGGG repeats (with their various protein binding partners) are called telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The encoded protein is one of six subunits of prefoldin, a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly synthesized polypeptides, thereby allowing them to fold correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein binds to cruciform and superhelical DNA and induces positive supercoils into closed circular DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell cycle
  • The unregulated expression of this protein activates other proteins that are involved in cell cycle and cell division which can cause a cell to grow and divide uncontrollably (the cell becomes cancerous). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Oncogenes (Teilungsfoerdernde Chromosomen) that become amplified (im permanenten Übergewicht) during tumour development. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • The first, known as chromosomal instability (CIN), results from a series of genetic changes that involve the activation of oncogenes such as K-ras and inactivation of TSG such as p53, DCC/Smad4, and APC. (kegg.jp)
  • Inactivation of SUMO-activating enzyme (SAE1 / SAE2) in the presence of Myc hyperactivation results in mitotic catastrophe and cell death in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modification of the protein at amino acid 67 (lysine to methionine) results in the inactivation of the kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in activation of immunoglobulin V-D-J recombination. (cancerindex.org)
  • Our results provide the first evidence that ISL-1 is tightly linked to NHL proliferation and development by promoting c-Myc transcription, and its aberrant expression was regulated by p-STAT3/p-c-Jun/ISL-1 complex activation. (nih.gov)
  • chromosome
  • Another example of an oncogene is the Bcr-Abl gene found on the Philadelphia chromosome, a piece of genetic material seen in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia caused by the translocation of pieces from chromosomes 9 and 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • More information about the Philadelphia Chromosome below) The proto-oncogene can become an oncogene by a relatively small modification of its original function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first insight into the mechanism came from studying BCL2, the product of a putative oncogene activated by chromosome translocations often found in follicular lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • contributes
  • This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits including beta1i, beta2i, beta5i) that contributes to the complete assembly of 20S proteasome complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • These proteolytic active sites located in the inner side of a chamber formed by 4 stacked rings of 20S subunits, preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macroautophagy, often referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that results in the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal protein aggregates, and excess or damaged organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Many of these gene expression changes illustrated by gene microarray analysis may be secondary or even far distal to the primary changes determined by the actual oncogene or suppressor gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MYC protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, and we used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of its association with lethal prostate cancer (distant metastases/prostate cancer death). (aacrjournals.org)
  • There were no significant associations between MYC protein expression and stage, grade or PSA level at diagnosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The multivariable HR for lethal prostate cancer among men in the top versus bottom quartile of MYC protein expression was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.50-2.35). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that could become an oncogene due to mutations or increased expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unregulated expression of this protein activates other proteins that are involved in cell cycle and cell division which can cause a cell to grow and divide uncontrollably (the cell becomes cancerous). (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of oncogenes can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), small RNAs 21-25 nucleotides in length that control gene expression by downregulating them. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins' ability to alter gene expression has made them targets of investigation for research groups seeking to understand disease pathology and oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteolysis
  • To meet such complicated demands in biological process via spatial and temporal proteolysis, protein substrates have to be recognized, recruited, and eventually hydrolyzed in a well controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The protein consists of four conserved domains (RNA-Binding Domain (TRBD), fingers, palm and thumb), organized into a ring configuration that shares common features with retroviral reverse transcriptases, viral RNA polymerases and bacteriophage B-family DNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of the protein phosphatase Pgam5 in vitro and in vivo in Xenopus . (biologists.org)
  • complex
  • The core β-Catenin destruction complex consists of β-Catenin, Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein (APC), Axin, the kinases CK1 and GSK3β and the Ubiquitin ligase βTrCP. (biologists.org)
  • Class III PI3K complex, containing hVps34, Beclin-1, p150 and Atg14-like protein or ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), is required for the induction of autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The CCDC94 protein contains a coiled-coil domain, a domain of unknown function (DUF572), an uncharacterized conserved protein (COG5134), and lacks a transmembrane domain. (wikipedia.org)