• Although growth factor receptors are generally thought to carry out their role in signal transduction at the cell surface, many of these transmembrane proteins translocate to the nucleus after ligand stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • Paxillin is a signal transduction adaptor protein discovered in 1990 in the laboratory of Keith Burridge The C-terminal region of paxillin contains four LIM domains that target paxillin to focal adhesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction and function between c-Jun protein and Jun B protein increase the repertoire of possible regulatory complexes by LMP1 that could play an important role in the regulation of transcription of specific cellular genes in the process of genesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The gene induction kinetics of c-fos, c-jun and two other IE genes, core promoter element binding protein (CPBP) and MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1), was examined (Figure 6B). (nih.gov)
  • Glucocorticoids inhibit hepatocellular proliferation and modulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes via mechanisms involving the glucocorticoid receptor. (nih.gov)
  • For example, by forming stable heterodimers with c-Jun, the bZIP region of v-Fos increases the binding of c-Jun to target genes whose activation is involved in the differentiation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). (wikipedia.org)
  • As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is a list of 12 human genes encoding SR proteins involved in splicing: SR proteins are characterized by an RS domain and at least one RNA recognition motif (RRM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Depletion of JunB by small interfering ribonucleic acid abrogates TGF-β-induced disruption of cell-cell junctions, formation of actin fibers, focal adhesions, and expression of fibrotic proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Light-induced phase shifts of circadian rhythmic locomotor activity are associated with the expression of c-Jun, JunB, c-Fos and FosB transcription factors in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus, as shown in the present study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In order to explore the importance of c-Fos and JunB, the predominantly expressed AP-1 proteins for the phase-shifting effects of light, we blocked the expression of c-Fos and JunB in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of male rats, housed under constant darkness, by intracerebroventricular application of 2 microliters of 1 mM antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ASO) specifically directed against c-fos and junB mRNA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ASO strongly reduced the light-induced expression of c-Fos and JunB proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • JNK phosphorylates the amino terminal domain of all three Jun transcription factors (JunB, c-Jun and JunD) all members of the AP-1 family. (umassmed.edu)
  • C-jun regulates the transcriptional level of cyclin D1, which is a major Rb kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also demonstrate that c-Jun directly binds to ATF4, thereby promoting the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The promoter region of Cx43 contains a conserved activator protein-1 (AP-1) site, which binds dimers of Fos and Jun proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ChIP, Co-IP and ChIP-re-IP analysis revealed that ISL-1 could participate with p-STAT3 and p-c-Jun to form a p-STAT3/p-c-Jun/ISL-1 transcriptional complex that binds directly on the ISL-1 promoter, demonstrating a positive feedback regulatory mechanism for ISL-1 expression in NHL. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that AP-1 (Fos and Jun), induced transiently by CD40 ligand or LPS, binds a DNA element in the mouse GL epsilon promoter. (umassmed.edu)
  • The encoded protein forms homodimers or heterodimers with other PAR family members and binds sequence-specific promoter elements to activate transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulated by MITF) HMGB1 High mobility group box binds DNA ILF2 Homo sapiens interleukin enhancer binding factor 2, 45kDa (ILF2), mRNA IER2 formerly ETR101 Immediate Early Protein? (wikipedia.org)
  • PRKAG1 NM_002733 Homo sapiens protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit (PRKAG1), mRNA PRKAR1A NM_002734 Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells PRKRIP1 NM_024653 Binds double-stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mAb104 antibody binds to a phosphoepitope on the C-terminal domain of SR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Total mRNA was isolated and northern blotting carried out with 3′ c-fos (i) and 3′ c-jun (ii) probes and a full-length gapdh cDNA probe (iii). (nih.gov)
  • The aims of the present study were (1) to examine whether c-H- ras and c- myc are expressed at the mRNA levels in the steady-state myocardium of HCM patients, (2) to determine whether the proto-oncogene expression has some effects on the phenotypic expression of HCM, and (3) to evaluate the possible interaction between the sarcomeric protein mutation and the proto-oncogene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Exposure of dopaminergic-like cell line to Ibogaine HCl results in an increase in GDNF mRNA, leading to protein expression and to the corresponding activation of the GDNF signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • SR proteins are important in constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, genome stabilization, nonsense-mediated decay, and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • SR proteins alternatively splice pre-mRNA by preferentially selecting different splice sites on the pre-mRNA strands to create multiple mRNA transcripts from one pre-mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once splicing is complete the SR protein may or may not remain attached to help shuttle the mRNA strand out of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • As RNA Polymerase II is transcribing DNA into RNA, SR proteins attach to newly made pre-mRNA to prevent the pre-mRNA from binding to the coding DNA strand to increase genome stabilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • SR proteins can control the concentrations of specific mRNA that is successfully translated into protein by selecting for nonsense-mediated decay codons during alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • SR proteins can alternatively splice NMD codons into its own mRNA transcript to auto-regulate the concentration of SR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the mTOR pathway and interactions with polyribosomes, SR proteins can increase translation of mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interchromatin granule clusters are for the storage and reassembly of pre-mRNA splicing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alteration of the CRE-like site impaired both the cAMP-responsive transcriptional activation and Jun-mediated repression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies have shown that the chicken protein can bind to c-Jun and can repress c-Jun-mediated transcriptional activation, but these activities have not been demonstrated in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTPases are active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP, allowing their activity to be regulated by GEFs and the opposing GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • ER stress was induced pharmacologically in vitro and in vivo and resulted in a rapid and robust induction of c-Jun protein expression. (nih.gov)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • In the current study, we unraveled an important role of Jun proteins in modulating ovary-specific aromatase expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ectopic expression of the Jun proteins in a human granulosa cell line significantly inhibited an ovary-specific promoter (PII) of the aromatase gene, whereas expression of dominant-negative mutants of Jun led to increased promoter activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of troponin T and beta-tubulin protein, c-jun protein, protein kinase Ca (PKCa), and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were assayed with Western blot in the transfected and non-transfected groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The c-jun antisense gene recombinant transfection alleviates injury to cardiomyocytes treated with burn serum and hypoxia, probably through low expression of PKCa and JNK. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results provide the first evidence that ISL-1 is tightly linked to NHL proliferation and development by promoting c-Myc transcription, and its aberrant expression was regulated by p-STAT3/p-c-Jun/ISL-1 complex activation. (nih.gov)
  • The colony-forming efficiency of H1299 and A549 was reduced by TAM67, while that of H520 was not.The induced TAM67 decreased the expression of a cell-cycle regulatory protein, cyclin A.Furthermore, TAM67 reduced growth of established xenograft tumours from these cells in nude mice. (nih.gov)
  • The induced TAM67 decreased the expression of a cell-cycle regulatory protein, cyclin A. TAM67 also inhibited anchorage-independent growth of these cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, protein expression of cIAP-2 was induced by TNF in only wild-type fibroblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • These experiments establish that the JNK/JunD pathway collaborates with NF-кB pathway to increase the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein cIAP-2 in TNF treated cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Basal expression of the OC gene is associated with sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions at the OC box, VDRE, and TATA/GRE box. (umassmed.edu)
  • This study sought to examine the effects of c-H- ras and c- myc expression in the steady-state myocardium on hypertrophic changes and to evaluate the possible interaction between β-MHC mutation and proto-oncogene expression in HCM. (ahajournals.org)
  • The proto-oncogene expression did not affect clinical findings, myocardial fibrosis, or disarray. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 14 15 Although immunoreactivity for Myc was found in the myocardium in some of the HCM patients, 16 little is known about the pathogenetic significance of the expression of these proto-oncogenes in the myocardium of HCM patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, it is possible that the mutations of the sarcomeric proteins have some effect on the expression of the proto-oncogenes, which might contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy in HCM. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, UV irradiation is a potent inducer for elevated c-jun expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells absent of c-jun, the expression of p53 (cell cycle arrest inducer) and p21 (CDK inhibitor and p53 target gene) is increased, and those cells exhibit cell cycle defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • UV irradiation can activate c-jun expression and the JNK signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in PXN as well as abnormal expression of paxillin protein has been implicated in the progression of various cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the activation and basic leucine zipper domains of Jun were required for the transcriptional repression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because the functions of c-Jun during the ER stress response are poorly understood, we addressed this issue in primary hepatocytes and livers of hepatocyte-specific c-Jun knockout mice. (nih.gov)
  • Three mammalian homologues have been characterized, which all differ in their ability to function as adaptor proteins due to the differing lengths of their C-terminal UBA domains: c-Cbl: ubiquitously expressed, 906 and 913 amino acids in length in humans and mice respectively Cbl-b: ubiquitously expressed, 982 amino acids long. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Lian, Jane B., "Postproliferative transcription of the rat osteocalcin gene is reflected by vitamin D-responsive developmental modifications in protein-DNA interactions at basal and enhancer promoter elements" (1993). (umassmed.edu)
  • Though this general scheme is common among GEFs, the specific interactions between the regions of the GTPase and GEF vary among individual proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • To explore the molecular mechanism of c-jun antisense gene transfection in alleviating injury of cardiomyocytes treated with burn serum and hypoxia, burn serum was collected from Wistar rats inflicted with 30% third-degree burn of the total body surface area. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The constructed c-jun antisense gene recombinant was transfected into the cardiomyocytes of neonatal Wistar rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1982). «Direct mutagenesis of HA-RAS-1 oncogenes by N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea during initiation of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • To further validate these findings, macroautophagy was inhibited chemically in ER-stressed wildtype hepatocytes, which resulted in cytoplasmic vacuolization and increased cell damage closely resembling the phenotypes observed in c-Jun-deficient cells. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, cancer cells need more Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) for proper substrate- protein folding on oncogenic pathways. (cancerindex.org)
  • Jun proteins modulate the ovary-specific promoter of aromatase gene in ovarian granulosa cells via a cAMP-responsive element. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Taken together, our work suggests that Jun proteins may attenuate estrogen biosynthesis by directly downregulating transcription of the aromatase gene in ovarian granulosa cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In tissue fibrosis and wound healing, EMT is thought to contribute to generation of myofibroblasts and myofibroblast-like cells that mediate deposition of ECM proteins, such as collagens and fibronectin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is essential for the immortalization of human B cells and is linked etiologically to several human tumors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Addressing molecular mechanisms involved, we find that Huntingtin-interacting protein HYPB/Setd2 is responsible for virtually all global and transcription-dependent H3K36 trimethylation, but not H3K36-mono- or dimethylation, in these cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we did not observe any intragenic transcription from c-fos, c-jun or gapdh in K36me3-depleted cells (Figure 6E). (nih.gov)
  • Studies have shown that c-jun is required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and c-jun null cells show increased G1 arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, these proteins are found mostly in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfection studies suggest that JNK interaction protein (JIP) could inhibit the heterodimer form of c-Jun and Jun B through blocking the AP-1 signaling pathway triggered by LMP1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ER stress results in the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways including Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). (nih.gov)
  • Further results revealed that ISL-1 could be positively regulated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that c-Jun protects hepatocytes against excessive activation of the ER stress response and subsequent cell death and provide evidence that c-Jun functionally links ER stress responses and macroautophagy. (nih.gov)
  • He spent the following months extending his research, eventually discovering that such oncogene was the mutation of an allele of the Ras subfamily, as well as its activation mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein may help couple the Fc receptor to the activation of the respiratory burst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains involved in the activation of small GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is important in hematopoiesis, playing a role in T-cell and B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, c-jun is required for maintaining sufficient cyclin D1 kinase activity and allowing cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • LMP1 is an integral membrane protein which acts like a constitutively active receptor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutational analysis of the steroid hormone binding domain and the overlapping AP-1 site at the VDRE supports mutually exclusive occupancy by Fos-Jun heterodimers and vitamin D receptor. (umassmed.edu)
  • MAPK15 has been demonstrated to interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3A (MAP1LC3A, or LC3) in a process that stimulates autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCK has been shown to interact with: ADAM15 BCR gene, Cbl gene, ELMO1, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, RAPGEF1, RAS p21 protein activator 1, and RASA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • RCC1 converts RanGDP to RanGTP in the nucleus, activating Ran for the export of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • SR proteins are more commonly found in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, but several SR proteins are known to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first antibody, mAb104 found SR proteins in the nucleus of amphibian oocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • SR proteins are mostly found in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partial dephosphorylation of the RS domain causes the SR proteins to leave the nucleus and SR proteins with unphosphorylated RS domains are found in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such protein-DNA interactions at the VDRE are consistent with repression of competency for vitamin D-mediated transcriptional enhancement in proliferating osteoblasts expressing high levels of Fos and Jun. (umassmed.edu)
  • Among them, mitogen-activated protein kinases are thought to be of central importance. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated by the kinases, MAPK1 and MAPK8. (wikipedia.org)