Loading...
  • specific
  • These include the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS), various T3-secreted effector proteins, H7 flagellin, and a number of specific adhesins, including F9 fimbriae and autotransporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • mRNA
  • To study the cytokine expression of myelin reactive T-cells in MS, we determined the cytokine mRNA levels in a panel of blood derived MBP-specific T-cell clones derived from MS patients (33 clones) and normal controls (21 clones), using a novel quantitative RT-PCR method. (uhasselt.be)
  • Although MS clones express higher levels of TNF alpha and IL-10 mRNA, these differences do not reach statistical significance, Interestingly, significantly increased TNF alpha and IFN gamma mRNA levels were observed among clones derived from HLA-DR2 positive versus HLA-DR2 negative MS patients. (uhasselt.be)
  • This HLA halpotype is known to be associated with MS. The high levels of TNF alpha and IFN gamma mRNA observed in MBP-reactive T-cell clones from MS patients indicate an important role of these cytokines in the disease process. (uhasselt.be)
  • The striking homology between p54nrb, PSF, and NONA/BJ6 defines a novel phylogenetically conserved protein segment, termed DBHS domain (for Drosophila behavior, human splicing), which may be involved in regulating diverse pathways at the level of pre-mRNA splicing. (cshl.edu)
  • Exportin 1 (XPO1), also known as chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1), is an eukaryotic protein that mediates the nuclear export of proteins, rRNA, snRNA, and some mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lymphoblast is a different form of a naive lymphocyte that occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an antigen (from antigen-presenting cells) and increased in volume by nucleus and cytoplasm growth as well as new mRNA and protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. (jimmunol.org)
  • Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. (jimmunol.org)
  • The concept of molecular mimicry describes a situation in which a foreign antigen can initiate an immune response in which a T or B cell component cross-recognizes self. (wikipedia.org)
  • This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in the reticuloendothelial system, and under modulation by T cells, and is closely intertwined with affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells that respond most avidly to antigen are preferentially allowed to proliferate and mature, a process known as clonal selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR interaction for myeloid leukocytes, and Ag-Ig-CD79 interaction for B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, the protein sequence of a humanized antibody is essentially identical to that of a human variant, despite the non-human origin of some of its complementarity determining region (CDR) segments responsible for the ability of the antibody to bind to its target antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Funded by the U.S. National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) between 2000 and 2015, its aim was to reduce the cost and time required to determine three-dimensional protein structures and to develop techniques for solving challenging problems in structural biology, including membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second phase, PSI-2, focused on implementing the high-throughput structure determination methods developed in PSI-1, as well as homology modeling and addressing bottlenecks like modeling membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new centers participating in PSI-2 included four specialized centers: Accelerated Technologies Center for Gene to 3D Structure (ATCG3D), the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG), the Center for High-Throughput Structural Biology (CHTSB), a branch of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa Consortium taking that institution's place), the Center for Structures of Membrane Proteins (CSMP), and the New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The TCR is a disulfide-linked membrane-anchored heterodimeric protein normally consisting of the highly variable alpha (α) and beta (β) chains expressed as part of a complex with the invariant CD3 chain molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Constant region is proximal to the cell membrane, followed by a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail, while the Variable region binds to the peptide/MHC complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on leukocytes, TCR is already docked onto the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCAP is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • cDNAs encoding p54nrb were cloned with probes derived from partial sequence of the purified protein. (cshl.edu)
  • The probe we used is composed by an Ibp AB promoter specifically activated by protein aggregates fused to a sequence coding the β-galactosidase, the activity of which becomes, therefore, indicative of the aggregation degree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Originally launched in February 2008, the SBKB is a free resource that provides information on protein sequence and keyword searching, as well as modules describing target selection, experimental protocols, structure models, functional annotation, metrics on overall progress, and updates on structure determination technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The step involving recombinant DNA provides an intervention point that can be readily exploited to alter the protein sequence of the expressed antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • The β-galactosidase probe was useful to identify which parameters could influence the aggregation of the model proteins and to set up an optimized expression protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also compared a set of expression vectors with various regulative features and found that the single characteristics, like promoter, copy number or polymerase, were not relevant for controlling the recombinant protein aggregation whilst the crucial factor resulted being the total expression rate of the system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an alternative approach a probe is used, the expression of which depends specifically on the presence of the aggregates, whilst it does not interact directly with the target protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mouse embryos that are Oct-4-deficient or have low expression levels of Oct-4 fail to form the inner cell mass, lose pluripotency and differentiate into trophectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the level of Oct-4 expression in mice is vital for regulating pluripotency and early cell differentiation since one of its main functions is to keep the embryo from differentiating. (wikipedia.org)
  • used conditional expression and repression in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine requirements for Oct-4 in the maintenance of developmental potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In in-vitro experiments of murine Embryonic Stem Cells, Oct-4 has often been used as a marker of stemness, as differentiated cells show reduced expression of this marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • As discussed above, this is achieved through recombinant DNA methods using an appropriate vector and expression in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • XPO1 (CRM1) originally was identified in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe in a genetic screen, and investigators determined that it was involved in control of the chromosome structure Exportin 1 mediates leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cholesterol-depleted cells, this protein binds to sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and mediates their transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The first phase of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI-1) spanned from 2000 to 2005, and was dedicated to demonstrating the feasibility of high-throughput structure determination, solving unique protein structures, and preparing for a subsequent production phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first phase of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI-1) lasted from June 2000 until September 2005, and had a budget of $270 million funded primarily by NIGMS with support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Tumor cell clones isolated from a rat 13762NF mammary adenocarcinoma and its spontaneous metastases were heterogeneous in their survival responses to continuous 42° heating. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although absolute accumulations of these HSP could not be directly compared between these clones, the higher rates of HSP synthesis in these tumor cell clones correlated with more thermal resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data support the working hypothesis that one or more of these HSP have a direct role in the mechanism(s) for inducing thermal resistance in rat tumor cells, but other factors such as total protein synthesis could modify the complex biochemical and phenotypic pathways involved in induced HSP and thermal resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The coiled coil region (amino acids 129-250) of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The transcription factors Oct-4, Sox2 and Nanog are part of a complex regulatory network with Oct-4 and Sox2 capable of directly regulating Nanog by binding to its promoter, and are essential for maintaining the self-renewing undifferentiated state of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, embryonic stem cell lines (which are cell lines derived from the inner cell mass), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human immune system typically produces both T cells and B cells that are capable of being reactive with self-antigens, but these self-reactive cells are usually either killed prior to becoming active within the immune system, placed into a state of anergy (silently removed from their role within the immune system due to over-activation), or removed from their role within the immune system by regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:14584 Leavenworth JW, Tang X, Kim HJ, Wang X, Cantor H. Amelioration of arthritis through mobilization of CD8+ regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein, also known as SREBP cleavage-activating protein or SCAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCAP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCAP is a regulatory protein that is required for the proteolytic cleavage of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Oct-4 is one of the transcription factors used to create induced pluripotent stem cells, together with Sox2, Klf4 and often c-Myc in mouse, demonstrating its capacity to induce an embryonic stem cell-like state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast Cells
  • This effect has also been seen with the Thomson reprogramming factors, reverting human fibroblast cells to iPSCs through Oct-4, along with Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Like other BET protein family members, BRD3 associates with acetylated lysine residues on histones and transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Oct-4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intestinal dysplasia resulted from an increase in progenitor cell population and the upregulation of β-catenin transcription through the inhibition of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Although transcriptional determination has usually been considered as a binary on-off control system, they found that the precise level of Oct-4 governs 3 distinct fates of ES cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, his research addressed whether the multiple immunological functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Autoimmune mechanisms involving T-cell responses to (a) myelin autoantigen(s), such as myelin basic protein (MBP), are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), Cytokines may play a central role in the regulation of the pathogenic autoimmune responses in MS and the mediation of tissue damage in the disease. (uhasselt.be)
  • The encoded proteins have provided clues to diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. (plantcell.org)
  • We distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance. (plantcell.org)
  • encoded by this gene
  • The protein encoded by this gene forms a heterotrimeric motor complex with kinesin family member 3A and KAP3 (kinesin accessory protein 3) to drive intra-flagellar transport and possibly to aid in chromosome movement during mitosis and meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an accessory subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) that is not directly involved in catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The encoded protein is a plus end-directed microtubule motor and can interact with the SMC3 subunit of the cohesin complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleosome-remodeling factor subunit BPTF is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BPTF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is highly similar to the largest subunit of the Drosophila NURF (nucleosome remodeling factor) complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Although commonly lymphoblast refers to a precursor cell in the maturation of leukocytes, the usage of this term is sometimes inconsistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. (jimmunol.org)
  • It was later deterimined that only two of these four factors, Oct4 and Klf4 were sufficient to reprogram mouse adult neural stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • Thus, a critical amount of Oct-4 is required to sustain stem cell self-renewal, and up- or down regulation induces divergent developmental programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is also the senior scientist, division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Advanced Medical Discovery Institute/Ontario Cancer Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Nature Immunology, 2004;5:516 Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck MBF, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway. (wikipedia.org)