Loading...
  • biomolecules
  • Electrochromatography is a chemical separation technique in analytical chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology used to resolve and separate mostly large biomolecules such as proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been applied to the analysis of biomolecules (biopolymers such as DNA, proteins, peptides and sugars) and large organic molecules (such as polymers, dendrimers and other macromolecules), which tend to be fragile and fragment when ionized by more conventional ionization methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this laser and matrix combination, Tanaka was able to ionize biomolecules as large as the 34,472 Da protein carboxypeptidase-A. Tanaka received one-quarter of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for demonstrating that, with the proper combination of laser wavelength and matrix, a protein can be ionized. (wikipedia.org)
  • fractions
  • Abstract -After investigation of the contents and redox status of antioxidants and lipids in homogenates of both normal artery and atherosclerotic plaque, we now investigated them in the density fractions (very low, low, high, and protein fractions) of atherosclerotic plaque freshly obtained from carotid endarterectomy. (ahajournals.org)
  • The content of unesterified cholesterol per unit of protein in low- and high-density fractions was 10-fold that in corresponding plasma lipoproteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Also fractions of the gel chromatography corresponding to lower molecular weight showed 3'-DNA phosphatase activity, but antibodies against AtZDP did not recognize this fraction inferring that in plants, at least another protein with similar activity exists. (diva-portal.org)
  • This is performed by adding increasing amounts of ammonium sulfate and collecting the different fractions of precipitate protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Computational methods typically use computer programs to analyze proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a vessel (typically a tube or bottle) containing a mixture of proteins or other particulate matter, such as bacterial cells, is rotated at high speeds, the inertia of each particle yields a force in the direction of the particles velocity that is proportional to its mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological
  • Thermo Scientific Pierce Protein Concentrators PES are disposable ultrafiltration centrifugal devices with a polyethersulfone (PES) membrane for concentration, desalting and buffer exchange of biological samples. (thermofisher.com)
  • homologous
  • The advent of protein sequencing allowed molecular biologists to create phylogenies based on sequence comparison, and to use the differences between homologous sequences as a molecular clock to estimate the time since the last universal common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • cation
  • These proteins contain a number of known common modification domains, including regions for divalent cation interaction, phosphorylation & acetylation, and proteolytic cleavage, among others established and predicted. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Finally, the cell debris can be removed by centrifugation so that the proteins and other soluble compounds remain in the supernatant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • citation needed] 14-3-3 proteins can be considered evolved members of the Tetratrico Peptide Repeat (TPR) superfamily, generally have 9 or 10 alpha helices, and usually form homo- and/or hetero-dimer interactions along their amino-termini helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protein microarray (or protein chip) is a high-throughput method used to track the interactions and activities of proteins, and to determine their function, and determining function on a large scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Site-directed mutagenesis selectively introduces mutations that change the structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, its major drawback is that detailed structural knowledge of a protein is often unavailable, and, even when available, it can be very difficult to predict the effects of various mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • We have identified the transmembrane receptor, LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), as a regulator of innate immunity and inflammatory responses in macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • 14-3-3 proteins have the ability to bind a multitude of functionally diverse signaling proteins, including kinases, phosphatases, and transmembrane receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • In this study the heme biosynthesis proteins AhbAB, AhbC, and AhbD from Methanosarcina barkeri were functionally characterized. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequently, it was shown in vitro that the corresponding recombinant Nir-like proteins from D. vulgaris Hildenborough and D. desulfuricans were indeed able to catalyze the stepwise conversion of siroheme into heme, that is, the last steps of the alternative heme biosynthesis pathway (Figure 1(c) ). (hindawi.com)
  • In several species, these proteins have been implicated in biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, formation of biofilms, establishment of a sessile lifestyle, surface motility, and regulation of gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Shewanella
  • Here, we report extensive structural and biochemical studies of the Xanthomonas campestris TDO and a related protein SO4414 from Shewanella oneidensis , including the structure at 1.6-Å resolution of the catalytically active, ferrous form of TDO in a binary complex with the substrate l -Trp. (pnas.org)
  • bound
  • When the medium is bound to the protein of interest it becomes immobilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this would be GFP-Snf2H which consists of a protein bound to a green fluorescent protein to form a hybrid protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chip consists of a support surface such as a glass slide, nitrocellulose membrane, bead, or microtitre plate, to which an array of capture proteins is bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the environment is at a pH value equal to the protein's pI, the net charge is zero, and the protein is not bound to any exchanger, and therefore, can be eluted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Ho K.K.Y., Valiontis E., Waters M.J. and Rajkovic I.A. (1993) Regulation of growth hormone binding protein in man: Comparison of gel chromatography and immunoprecipitation methods. (edu.au)
  • Protein methods are the techniques used to study proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are experimental methods for studying proteins (e.g., for detecting proteins, for isolating and purifying proteins, and for characterizing the structure and function of proteins, often requiring that the protein first be purified). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, protein analysis usually requires DNA methods, especially cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some examples of genetic methods include conceptual translation, Site-directed mutagenesis, using a fusion protein, and matching allele with disease states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on how fragile the protein is and how stable the cells are, one could, for instance, use one of the following methods: i) repeated freezing and thawing, ii) sonication, iii) homogenization by high pressure (French press), iv) homogenization by grinding (bead mill), and v) permeabilization by detergents (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • These traditional methods are inefficient because it is impossible to obtain large amounts of proteins required for phosphorylation analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • fraction
  • Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA or "Fraction V") is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes a particular membrane fraction can be isolated first, such as isolating mitochondria from cells before purifying a protein located in a mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mallein, a protein fraction of B. mallei, is usually injected by an eye-drop. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • 1 This includes the oxidative modification of the protein and lipid moieties of LDL, as indicated by an increased particle electrophoretic mobility, 2 3 LDL aggregation, 4 oxidatively modified apoB100 (apoB) and fragments derived from it, 2 5 6 and the presence of oxidized free and esterified fatty acids (see Reference 7 7 and references therein). (ahajournals.org)
  • Physical entrapment of an enzyme in a gel lattice is an immobilization method in which no modification of the amino acid residues is needed, and which offers the advantage of reaction conditions usually so mild that few significant changes in the enzyme structure occur. (springer.com)
  • Phosphorylation is a key reversible modification that regulates protein function, subcellular localization, complex formation, degradation of proteins and therefore cell signalling networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • With all of these modification results, it is estimated that between 30% - 65% of all proteins may be phosphorylated, some multiple times. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • The specific pI of the target protein can be used to model the process around and the compound can then be purified from the rest of the mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixtures
  • 2D separations have been applied to the analysis of gasoline and other petroleum mixtures, and more recently to protein mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • It is shown that DGC activity of the GGDEF domain protein Rrp1 from Borrelia burgdorferi is strictly dependent on phosphorylation status of its input receiver domain. (asm.org)
  • First, it provides clues on what protein or pathway might be activated because a change in phosphorylation status almost always reflects a change in protein activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • Another fabrication method is ink-jetting, a drop-on-demand, non-contact method of dispersing the protein polymers onto the solid surface in the desired pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extraction
  • Protein extraction from tissues with tough extracellular matrices (e.g., biopsy samples, venous tissues, cartilage, skin) is often achieved in a laboratory setting by impact pulverization in liquid nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • As water in the samples becomes very brittle at these temperature, the samples are often reduced to a collection of fine fragments, which can then be dissolved for protein extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advantages of these devices include high levels of protein extraction from small, valuable samples, disadvantages include low-level cross-over contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Presence of large gene families of 14-3-3 proteins in the Viridiplantae kingdom reflects their essential role in plant physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preparative purifications aim to produce a relatively large quantity of purified proteins for subsequent use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein precipitated will be large enough to be visible. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the sequence-conformation space that needs to be searched is large, the most challenging requirement for computational protein design is a fast, yet accurate, energy function that can distinguish optimal sequences from similar suboptimal ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its main advantage lies in the fact that large numbers of proteins can be tracked in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • The full-length BSA precursor protein is 607 amino acids (AAs) in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional four amino acids are cleaved to yield the mature BSA protein that contains 583 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some proteins have never been directly sequenced, however by translating codons from known mRNA sequences into amino acids by a method known as conceptual translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This alignment can show which amino acids are conserved between species and are important for the function of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids that make up proteins may be positive, negative, neutral, or polar in nature, and together give a protein its overall charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • In SILAC, cells are cultured separately in the presence of different isotopically labeled amino acids for several cell divisions allowing cellular proteins to incorporate the label. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • BSA is also commonly used to determine the quantity of other proteins, by comparing an unknown quantity of protein to known amounts of BSA (see Bradford protein assay). (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated amounts of 14-3-3 proteins are found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • denaturation
  • The chosen solid surface is then covered with a coating that must serve the simultaneous functions of immobilising the protein, preventing its denaturation, orienting it in the appropriate direction so that its binding sites are accessible, and providing a hydrophilic environment in which the binding reaction can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aqueous environment is essential at all stages of array manufacture and operation to prevent protein denaturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Ligand binding assays provide a measure of the interactions that occur between two molecules, such as protein-bindings, as well as the degree of affinity (weak, strong, or no connection) for which the reactants bind together. (wikipedia.org)
  • This differential scale has two comparative advantages: (1) it is especially useful for treating changes in water-protein interactions that are too small to be accessible to conventional force-field calculations, and (2) for homologous structures, it can yield correlations with changes in properties from mutations in the amino acid sequences alone, without determining corresponding structural changes, either in vitro or in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • venom
  • Ophanin, along with other specific snake toxins like triflin and ablomin, is also a helothermine-related venom protein (Helveprin) which was originally isolated from the skin of the Mexican beaded lizard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snake venom CRISP family proteins inhibit depolarization-induced smooth muscle contraction to different extents. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • In the mid-1970s, interest in liquid mobile phases for column chromatography resurfaced when it was discovered that the efficiency of separation could be vastly improved by pumping the liquid through a short packed column under pressure, rather than allowing it to flow slowly down a vertical column by gravity alone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • known
  • One of the best-known families of porphyrin complexes is heme, the pigment in red blood cells, a cofactor of the protein hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligand-binding assay methodology quantified the concentration of the hormone in the test material by comparing the effects of the test sample to the results of varying amounts of known protein (ligand). (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple sequence alignment utilizes data bases such as PREFAB, SABMARK, OXBENCH, IRMBASE, and BALIBASE in order to cross reference target protein sequences with known sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • scales was to examine proteins with known 3-D structures and define the hydrophobic character as the tendency for a residue to be found inside of a protein rather than on its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-associated protein 1 also known as LRPAP1 or RAP is a chaperone protein which in humans is encoded by the LRPAP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholesterol
  • 2-free cholesterol and phospholipids are transferred from triglyceride rich particles to plasma lipoproteins by distinct mechanisms, and 3 - CETP also contributes to phospholipid transfer activity in human plasma but not in transgenic mice plasma, a species which has high levels of the specific phospholipid transfer protein activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LRP gives protection across LDL by LRPAP and its downregulation may be subjected for an elevation of LDL and Ab-related neuronal toxicity as LRP supports in binding of ligand and internalization of LRP ligands like apo-E-enriched LDL cholesterol and Ab protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Since the proteins from the different sample types (e.g. healthy/diseased, virulent/non-virulent) are run on the same gel they can be directly compared. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Research applications such as gene editing, gene expression, and directed differentiation depend on the effective, efficient delivery of DNA, RNA and/or Cas9 protein complexes into stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • C, left) Lipofectamine Stem Reagent was used to transfect cells with Cas9 mRNA (modified)/ gRNA: Emx-1 crRNA (Exon2)-tracrRNA oligo/ GFP mRNA (modified) or Cas9 protein/gRNA: Emx-1 crRNA (Exon2)-tracrRNA oligo/ GFP mRNA (modified). (thermofisher.com)
  • Cells containing the protein complement desired are grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • While the sequence-conformation space that needs to be searched is large, the most challenging requirement for computational protein design is a fast, yet accurate, energy function that can distinguish optimal sequences from similar suboptimal ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Research shows that infants who consume whey protein by mouth during the first 3-12 months of life have a lower risk of developing red, itchy skin by the age of 3 years. (webmd.com)
  • Research shows that infants who consume whey protein by mouth during the first 3-12 months of life are less likely to be prone to allergies and allergic reactions compared to infants who receive standard formula. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that taking whey protein by mouth can help decrease weight loss in people with HIV. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that taking a specific whey protein supplement daily for 6 weeks can improve shortness of breath but not lung function or quality of life in people with COPD. (webmd.com)
  • Other research suggests that taking whey protein supplements does not improve lung function, muscle function, or exercise in people with COPD. (webmd.com)
  • Research suggests that taking a drink containing whey protein daily for 2 years does not improve bone density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. (webmd.com)
  • Most research suggests that taking whey protein alone, along with dietary changes, or while following an exercise plan does not seem to further reduce weight for overweight and obese adults. (webmd.com)
  • high
  • In the future, more detailed knowledge of protein structure and function, and advances in high-throughput screening, may greatly expand the abilities of protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The FDA has approved four variations of the LAL test: gel-clot, turbidimetric, colorimetric, and chromogenic assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries provided precious information regarding both the sensitivity and specificity of protein hormones found within blood-based fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • The differences in these variations refer to the characteristics of the amoebocyte/endtoxin reaction (e.g. gel-clot produces a precipitate and colorimetric changes color). (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique is used to see changes in protein abundance (for example, between a sample of a healthy person and a sample of a person with disease), post-translational modifications, truncations and any modification that might change the size or isoelectric point of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rational protein design, a scientist uses detailed knowledge of the structure and function of a protein to make desired changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • predict
  • However, its major drawback is that detailed structural knowledge of a protein is often unavailable, and, even when available, it can be very difficult to predict the effects of various mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Mature vessels contain a variety of contractile proteins including α -SMA, which is often used as a pericyte marker [ 15 , 18 , 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Without structural information about a protein, sequence analysis is often useful in elucidating information about the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, hydrogen bonds that are lost in the transfer to organic solvents are not reformed but often in the interior of protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Products
  • With the human genome sequenced, the next step is the verification and functional annotation of all predicted genes and their protein products. (wikipedia.org)
  • allows
  • For gene editing, Lipofectamine Stem reagent allows the co-transfection of Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNAs along with single-stranded DNA for homology directed repair. (thermofisher.com)
  • This allows the measurement of the abundance of a protein in each sample relative to the internal standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, taking why protein might not be helpful for treating atopic diseases once they develop. (webmd.com)
  • specific
  • Some evidence shows that taking a specific whey protein extract daily for 8 weeks can reduce psoriasis symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Networks
  • A differential solvent accessible surface area hydrophobicity scale based on proteins as compacted networks near a critical point, due to self-organization by evolution, was constructed based on asymptotic power-law (self-similar) behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • The three samples are mixed and loaded onto IEF (isolectric focusing chromatography) for first dimension and the strip is transferred to a SDS PAGE. (wikipedia.org)
  • identify
  • The "fingerprint" of each peptide's fragmentation mass spectrum is used to identify the protein from which they derive by searching against a sequence database with commercially available software (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uses
  • Formulated with collagen and wound dressing matrix, one product that uses chondroitin sulfate is the veterinary wound gel Chondroprotec, which is applied over scrapes, burns, and lesions and serves to keep the wound moist and promote healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Analysizing the absence of the normal protein was done with immunoblot for affected individuals having LRPAP1 mutations revealing the mutations in LRPAP1 probability of loss-of-function mutations. (wikipedia.org)