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  • mammalian
  • For example, a study of SDH which used diverse methods such as protein sequence alignments , structural comparisons, energy calculations, gel filtration experiments and enzyme kinetics experiments, could reveal an important hydrogen bonding network which stabilizes the tetrameric quaternary structure in mammalian SDH. (wikipedia.org)
  • high-throughput
  • A protein microarray (or protein chip ) is a high-throughput method used to track the interactions and activities of proteins, and to determine their function, and determining function on a large scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high-throughput technology behind the protein microarray was relatively easy to develop since it is based on the technology developed for DNA microarrays , which have become the most widely used microarrays . (wikipedia.org)
  • After synthesis and purification by high-throughput methodologies, the proteins are printed onto the chip by using an instrument (micro-arrayer) that is capable of spotting liquid samples in a reproducible manner onto a planar support. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial
  • Nonetheless, bacterial expression has the advantage of easily producing large amounts of protein, which is required for X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for structure determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • Proteins ( / ˈ p r oʊ ˌ t iː n z / or / ˈ p r oʊ t i . ɪ n z / ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene , which is encoded in the genetic code . (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acids produced by catabolism may be directly recycled to form new proteins, converted into different amino acids, or can undergo amino acid catabolism to be converted to other compounds via the Krebs cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • SMC proteins are 1,000-1,500 amino-acid long. (wikipedia.org)
  • What would happen if there were a mutation in the gene for this protein, such that one of the charged amino acids is replaced by a neutral amino acid? (indiana.edu)
  • functional
  • Since it is usually the protein, rather than the mRNA, that has the functional role in cell response, a novel approach was needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The correct three-dimensional structure is essential to function, although some parts of functional proteins may remain unfolded [ 3 ] Failure to fold into the intended shape usually produces inactive proteins with different properties including toxic prions . (princeton.edu)
  • mRNA
  • The quantity of mRNA in the cell often doesn't reflect the expression levels of the proteins they correspond to. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this transition smaug protein targets the maternal mRNA for destruction using miRs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaug also bind to 3′ untranslated region (UTR) elements known as SMG response elements (SREs) on nanos mRNA and represses its expression by recruiting a protein called Cup (an eIF4E-binding protein that blocks the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E ) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • To convert to energy, once the proteins are broken down, they are typically deaminated (removal of an amino group) so that they can be processed into the Krebs/Citric Acid (TCA) Cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • L1 capsid proteins can bind via its nuclear localisation signal (NLS) to karyopherins Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) and inhibit the Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) nuclear import pathways during the productive phase of the viral life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry , site-directed mutagenesis , X-ray crystallography , nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • L2 proteins contain two nuclear localisation signals (NLSs), one at the N-terminal (nNLS) and the other at the C-terminal (cNLS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecule
  • It is thought that the cycle of ATP binding and hydrolysis modulates the cycle of closing and opening of the V-shaped molecule, but the detailed mechanisms of action of SMC proteins remain to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Kinetochores are the protein structures located at the intersection of the two sister chromatids that serves as an attachment site for microtubules and spindle fibers during cell division to help pull the two chromatids apart. (unc.edu)
  • sequence
  • Each of the 20 different amino acids has a particular chemical structure, indicated above by the X. When a protein has been built by bonding amino acids together, it is, in essence, a string with a particular sequence of different X groups coming off of it. (indiana.edu)
  • residues
  • Modifying these residues or nucleotides has a large effect on the communication pathways in the protein:RNA complex consistent with kinetic data. (pnas.org)
  • This study demonstrates that nucleotides in the tRNA as well as residues within the aaRS are essential for information transduction in the protein:RNA complex. (pnas.org)
  • targets
  • particularly DNA polymerase for PCR , reverse transcriptase for RNA analysis, restriction endonucleases for cloning, and to make proteins that are screened in drug discovery as biological targets or as potential drugs themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • The ribosome of E. coli has about 22 proteins in the small subunit (labelled S1 to S22) and 33 proteins in the large subunit (somewhat counter-intuitively called L1 to L36). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its main advantage lies in the fact that large numbers of proteins can be tracked in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most common type of protein array, robots place large numbers of proteins or their ligands onto a coated solid support in a pre-defined pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a protein needs to be available on short notice or in large quantities, a protein precursor is produced. (princeton.edu)
  • Function
  • The G protein activates a cascade of further signaling events that finally results in a change in cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally post-translational modifications , which are often critical for determining protein function, are not visible on DNA microarrays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of this surface is to provide a support onto which proteins can be immobilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • It provides a good overview of protein structure and function, as well as some of the historical discoveries that led to our current understanding of proteins. (merlot.org)
  • immune
  • Other proteins are important in cell signaling , immune responses , cell adhesion , and the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Your muscles , your organs, and your immune system are made up mostly of protein . (kidshealth.org)
  • This means that the protein contents of the food are split into tiny bits which ensures that the dog's immune system barely recognizes an allergic threat. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • The protein array technology allows the screening of biochemical activities or binding abilities of hundreds or thousands of protein samples in parallel. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cell
  • Proteins are especially important in cell division because they control when it starts, ends, and every movement in between. (unc.edu)
  • Below are some common proteins involved in cell division and listed are the roles they play. (unc.edu)
  • When biopharmaceuticals are produced with one of these systems, process-related impurities termed host cell proteins also arrive in the final product in trace amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Protein microarrays were developed due to the limitations of using DNA microarrays for determining gene expression levels in proteomics . (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The 1992 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Edwin G. Krebs and Edmond H. Fischer for describing how reversible phosphorylation works as a switch to activate proteins , and to regulate various cellular processes including glycogenolysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • certain protein
  • Hydrolyzed Protein is also used in the manufacturing process of certain specially formulated Hypoallergenic Dog Foods for dogs and puppies that suffer from allergies caused by certain protein and carbohydrate types in standard commercial dog food brands. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The contribution of each residue or node to the characteristic path length (CPL), defined as an average of the shortest path length between all pairs of nodes in the network, provides an estimate of the effect of node connectivity on communication pathways in a protein. (pnas.org)
  • Malfunction of GPCR [G Protein-Coupled Receptor] signaling pathways are involved in many diseases, such as diabetes , blindness, allergies, depression, cardiovascular defects, and certain forms of cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Folding
  • For each one, we'll consider 3 different alleles: non-mutant, a mutation such as that mentioned above with only 10% of normal activity, and a mutation that interferes with protein folding so much that the enzyme has no activity at all. (indiana.edu)
  • bound
  • The chip consists of a support surface such as a glass slide, nitrocellulose membrane, bead, or microtitre plate , to which an array of capture proteins is bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • We describe C (sp 3 )-C (sp 3 ) bond-forming reactions on proteins under biocompatible conditions, which exploit unusual carbon free radical chemistry, and use them to form Cβ-Cγ bonds with altered side chains. (sciencemag.org)
  • catalytic
  • Upon binding, the tRNA induces conformational changes throughout the protein:tRNA interface and within the catalytic site ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • structure
  • A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices . (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography . (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein binding to helical junctions is important for initiating the correct tertiary fold of RNA and to organize the overall structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For homotetrameric proteins such as Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), the structure is believed to have evolved going from a monomeric to a dimeric and finally a tetrameric structure in evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids interact with each other to produce a well-defined three-dimensional structure, the folded protein (the right hand side of the figure), known as the native state . (princeton.edu)