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  • Glycolysis
  • Aerobic Glycolysis in Tumor Cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Enhancement of Glycolysis in Proliferating Cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • but the advantage of aerobic glycolysis for tumor cells remains a matter of conjecture. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Indeed, Otto Warburg was the first to describe that cancer cells preferentially use aerobic glycolysis to produce energy [ 4 - 7 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The data further show that the mitochondria remain functional in Krebs' cycle activity and respiratory electron transfer that enables continued accelerated glycolysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first reaction is the oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) at the position-1 (in the diagram it is shown as the 4th carbon from glycolysis), in which an aldehyde is converted into a carboxylic acid (ΔG°'=-50 kJ/mol (−12kcal/mol)) and NAD+ is simultaneously reduced endergonically to NADH. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and fatty acid biosynthesis all occur in the cytosol of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis was the first metabolic pathway discovered: As glucose enters a cell, it is immediately phosphorylated by ATP to glucose 6-phosphate in the irreversible first step. (wikipedia.org)
  • In times of excess lipid or protein energy sources, certain reactions in the glycolysis pathway may run in reverse to produce glucose 6-phosphate, which is then used for storage as glycogen or starch. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotoxic
  • While 50 mg/L stimulated antioxidant activities and no major genotoxic effects were found, plants exposed to ≥150 showed an increase of oxidative disorders, together with cytostatic and DNA damage effects, and some mitotic impairment. (hindawi.com)
  • mitochondrial
  • In tumor cell lines, microtubule-destabilizing agents increase cytoplasmic free tubulin and decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), whereas microtubule stabilization increases ΔΨ m . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Most differentiated, nonproliferating cells aerobically metabolize glucose to pyruvate, which is then oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix by the tricarboxylic acid cycle to yield CO 2 and NADH with minimal production of lactate. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mutation
  • In a population of cells, mutant cells will increase or decrease in frequency according to the effects of the mutation on the ability of the cell to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, in rapidly dividing cells, unrepaired DNA damages that do not kill the cell by blocking replication will tend to cause replication errors and thus mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A germline mutation, or germinal mutation, is any detectable variation within germ cells (cells that, when fully developed, become sperm and ovum). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mutation arises in either the sperm or the oocyte before development, then the mutation will be present in every cell in the individual's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation that arises soon after fertilization, but before germline and somatic cells are determined, then the mutation will be present in a large proportion of the individual's cell with no bias towards germline or somatic cells, this is also called a gonosomal mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation that arises later in zygote development will be present in a small subset of either somatic or germline cells, but not both. (wikipedia.org)
  • A germline mutation often arises due to endogenous factors, like errors in cellular replication and oxidative damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because spermatocytes go through a larger number of cell divisions throughout a male's life, resulting in more replication cycles that could result in a DNA mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • a process in which water added to the peptide bonds of proteins breaks down the protein molecule into simpler substances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is the 6th step in the glycolytic breakdown of glucose, an important pathway of energy and carbon molecule supply which takes place in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the solid state and mildly acid water solutions, the molecule assumes an electrically neutral zwitterion structure −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • The two subforms of the disorder (the latter of which corresponds to ERCC6 defects) - CS-A and CS-B - both cause problems in the oxidative repair, though CS-B patients more often exhibit nerve system problems stemming from damage to this pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • The DDR can also arouse the immune system by for example inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides as well as ligands for receptors found on immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • RNAs
  • Here we will describe the procedure for quantitatively analyzing miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNA) from exosomes secreted in blood and cell culture media. (jove.com)
  • Damage
  • In conclusion, long-term exposure data show a highly responsive root, with a quadratic response meaning higher defenses at lower Cr doses, and higher oxidative and DNA damage and cytostatic effect at a higher dose. (hindawi.com)
  • Reports suggest that prodigiosin promotes oxidative damage to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the presence of copper ions and consequently leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression and cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results support a role for oxidative damage to biomolecules by H 2 O 2 and hydroxyl radical generation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Damage detection is followed by the recruitment of a set of transducers, which are composed of a number of protein kinases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxidative DNA damage is mutagenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein can also reverse damage from replication errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emerging picture clearly is that RecQ helicases in concert with Top 3 are involved in maintaining genomic stability and integrity by controlling recombination events, and repairing DNA damage in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding suggested that WRN may be important in dealing with oxidative DNA damages that underlie normal aging (see DNA damage theory of aging). (wikipedia.org)
  • This damage is rarely repaired imperfectly, but due to the high rate of germ cell division, can occur frequently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative damage is another endogenous factor that can cause germline mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can initiate DNA damage because it causes the nucleic acid guanine to shift to 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to somatic mutations, germline mutations can be caused by exposure to harmful substances, which damage the DNA of germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1 combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). (wikipedia.org)
  • A normal cell can repair damage to DNA easily before it collects. (wikipedia.org)
  • As this damage accumulates, it can lead to malfunctioning cells or cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the damaged cell, the CSA protein normally localizes to sites of DNA damage, particularly inter-strand cross-links, double-strand breaks and some monoadducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, DNA damage can trigger a CSB-dependent recombinational repair process that uses an RNA (rather than DNA) template. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • We observed an increase of p21-a regulator of cell-cycle progression-in Fxr1 -knocked-down mouse C2C12 and FSHD human myoblasts. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the absence of FXR1P, the upregulation of p21 mRNA determines the elevated level of its protein product that affects cell-cycle progression inducing a premature cell-cycle exit and generating a pool of cells blocked at G0. (prolekare.cz)
  • The KRAB Zinc Finger Protein Roma/Zfp157 Is a Critical Regulator of Cell-Cycle Progression and Genomic Stability. (abcam.com)
  • regulation
  • Molecular regulation of MHC class I chain-related protein A expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells. (abcam.com)
  • AP1 via Ref1 - Trx1 indirectly increases the DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP1) by reducing the DNA repair enzyme redox factor 1 (Ref-1), which in turn reduces AP1 in an example of a redox regulation cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein may use the morpheein model of allosteric regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cellular level, mutations can cause alterations in protein function and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactate
  • In contrast, in cancer cells glycolytic rates and lactate production are high even in the presence of adequate oxygenation ( Gambhir, 2002 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • precursors
  • The complex interactions between DNA repair proteins suggest that eukaryote CSB upholds some but not all of the functions of its prokaryotic precursors. (wikipedia.org)