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  • cytoplasm
  • Protease protection experiments and chemical extractability indicate that p57 is a peripheral membrane protein exposed to the cytoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • The NFKB complex is inhibited by I-kappa-B proteins (NFKBIA, MIM 164008 or NFKBIB, MIM 604495), which inactivate NFKB by trapping it in the cytoplasm. (abnova.com)
  • amino acid
  • The second factor, termed peptide specificity, describes the interaction between amino acid residues in the catalytic domain of the protein kinase and the substrate residues that surround the phosphorylated residue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an attempt to identify the location of the hyperphosphorylation sites in p58, proteins with sequential deletions from the C-terminal region of NS5A and with mutations of possible phosphorylated serine residues to a neutral amino acid, alanine, were constructed. (asm.org)
  • Subtraction of m / z values for fragments within a given ion series that differ by a single amino acid affords the mass and thus the identity of the extra residue in the larger of the two fragments. (pnas.org)
  • peptides
  • Although strategies such as immobilized metal affinity chromatography have been developed for selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides ( 5 - 8 ), their use to enrich for phosphorylated proteins has not yet been demonstrated. (mcponline.org)
  • To circumvent this problem, we have modified the LTQ mass spectrometer for ion/ion chemistry and now fragment both peptides ( 2 ) and intact proteins ( 3 ) by electron transfer dissociation (ETD). (pnas.org)
  • enzymes
  • Phosphorylation is especially important for protein function, as this modification activates (or deactivates) almost half of the enzymes , thereby regulating their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researcher D. G. Walker of the University of Birmingham determined the presence of two specific enzymes in adult guinea pig liver, both of which catalyze the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6 phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two families of enzymes facilitate the dynamic nature of phosphorylated proteins in a cell. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, prokaryotic Tyr phosphorylation is carried out by a different family of enzymes, the bacterial tyrosine kinases or BY-kinases, which do not share the structural homology with eukaryotic STYKs. (frontiersin.org)
  • regulate protein
  • Extensively characterized as pivotal enzyme controlling cell proliferation and differentiation, the prolyl-isomerase activity of Pin1 has been shown to regulate protein synthesis necessary to sustain the late phase of long-term potentiation at excitatory synapses, which suggests its involvement at synaptic sites. (frontiersin.org)
  • degradation
  • phosphorylation of Ser/Thr residues within the PTB domain or at the COOH-terminal region of IRS-1 induces dissociation of IRS-1 from the receptor concomitant with IRS-1 degradation. (physiology.org)
  • A functional McsB kinase is required for the controlled degradation of the global heat-shock regulator CtsR ( 9 ⇓ - 11 ), as well as for the de-localization of competence proteins ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • quantify
  • The In-Cell Western™ Assay is an immunocytochemical assay that uses near-infrared fluorescence to detect and quantify proteins in fixed cells. (licor.com)
  • We performed SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling on the tamoxifen resistant and vehicle-treated sensitive cell lines to quantify the phosphorylation alterations associated with tamoxifen resistance. (nih.gov)
  • genes
  • We have cloned genes encoding these three CSBP II proteins, termed RBP63, RBP45, and RBP33, and characterized their binding properties. (asm.org)
  • Although the majority of the protein coding genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II, well-defined RNA polymerase II promoters in these organisms have so far remained elusive, with the only exception being the spliced leader promoter ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • receptors
  • Gephyrin is a multifunctional scaffold protein essential for accumulation of inhibitory glycine and GABA A receptors at post-synaptic sites. (frontiersin.org)
  • GABA B receptors couple to several different effector systems, depending on the associated G protein (e.g. (aspetjournals.org)
  • catalytic
  • The method, named Predikin, identifies key conserved substrate-determining residues in the kinase catalytic domain that contact the substrate in the region of the phosphorylation site and so determine the sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The heptapeptide sequence from -3 to +3 that best binds to the pocket is determined by the physicochemical nature of the residues in the catalytic domain that line the pocket and contact the substrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, conformational changes regulate the catalytic activity of the protein. (thermofisher.com)
  • pathways
  • Proteomic data were integrated into biological networks and their interactions were represented through a hypothetical model, showing the effects of protein modulation on primary metabolic ways and related secondary pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1,821 proteins, including kinases, transcription factors and core components of BR and other hormone signaling pathways, were found to be differentially phosphorylated during the BR treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the activity of the amino-terminal AF-1 of the ER is modulated by the phosphorylation of Ser 118 through the Ras-MAPK cascade of the growth factor signaling pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • antibody
  • To identify the cellular site of betaAPP phosphorylation, we took advantage of an antibody that specifically detects the free C terminus of beta-secretase-cleaved betaAPP containing the Swedish missense mutation (APPssw-beta). (uniprot.org)
  • This protein phosphorylation antibody pair set comes with two antibodies, one against the RELA protein, and the other against the specific S311 phosphorylated site of RELA for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay . (abnova.com)
  • Enrichment
  • Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and statistical analysis showed that the general main category "response to stimulus" was over-represented in both infected and recovered plants but, in the latter, the specific child category "response to biotic stimulus" was no longer found, suggesting a return to steady-state levels for those proteins specifically required for defence against pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • kinase activation
  • One core pathway to cell growth is assembled through the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 interacting with Pro-X-X-Pro motifs on the Ras-GTPase-activating protein Sos leading to MAP kinase activation. (guwsmedical.info)
  • purification
  • This 118-page handbook provides comprehensive information about protein expression and will help you choose the right expression system and purification technologies for your specific application and needs. (thermofisher.com)
  • levels
  • The increase in phosphorylation levels of serine residues of protein HSP70 during holding at 17ºC is concomitant with a higher cryotolerance of boar spermatozoa. (uab.cat)
  • In cells exposed to two different types of asbestos, chrysotile (~1-6% iron content) and crocidolite (~27% iron content) fibers, at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 [micro]g/[cm.sup.for 24 hr, the levels of p53 phosphorylated at Ser15 and p53 protein were correlated with the dose. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • After exposure to 10 [micro]g/[cm.sup.chrysotile, the levels of p53 phosphorylated at Ser15 and of p53 protein increased after 18 hr. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The hexokinase enzyme has a low Km, indicating a high affinity for glucose, so this initial phosphorylation can proceed even when glucose levels at nanoscopic scale within the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of phosphorylation of both RBP45 and RBP33 were found to cycle during the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • contrast
  • Due to the chemical lability of these phosphorylated residues, and in marked contrast to Ser, Thr and Tyr phosphorylation, the analysis of phosphorylated Histidine using standard biochemical and mass spectrometric approaches is much more challenging and special procedures and separation techniques are required for their preservation alongside classical Ser, Thr and Tyr phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of them did not show any significant difference in recovered plants, which, by contrast, were characterized by changes in abundance, phosphorylation, or both for 17 proteins not detected in infected plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • occur
  • The mutational inactivation of p53 protein is one of the most common genetic events that occur in human cancers (Hupp et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • transporter
  • Indeed, it now appears that, unlike previous suggestions, most (if not all) antagonists block uptake by binding directly to the transporter protein. (acnp.org)
  • Phosphorylation allows cells to accumulate sugars because the phosphate group prevents the molecules from diffusing back across their transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • This is a first and important step in characterizing the cellular functions of this recently identified protein modification. (pnas.org)
  • Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus, is associated with increased vascular calcification and increased modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation). (ahajournals.org)