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  • pathways
  • RAP and LF also significantly increased expression of microRNA-155 (miR-155) after a lag phase of about 4 h. miR-155 expression reflected, at least in part, activation of secondary cell-signaling pathways downstream of TNFα. (pnas.org)
  • Even with the compilation of predicted targets and pathways the targets regulate, the functions of miRs need to be determined experimentally [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Predictive algorithms were used to identify likely upstream regulatory kinases, metabolic pathways, and biological processes that can be regulated by different PDEs. (pnas.org)
  • These data allow one to prioritize future experiments to understand further how these pathways are regulated by specific PDEs. (pnas.org)
  • To examine the role of small RNAs in peripheral pain pathways, we deleted the enzyme Dicer in mouse postmitotic damage-sensing neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • A drosophila pasha mutant distinguishes the canonical microRNA and mirtron pathways," Molecular and Cellular Biology , vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 861-870, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • inhibition
  • Various approaches are utilized to inhibit microRNA activity in cells, the majority of which rely on short-term inhibition of miR activity based on the effects of transient delivery into cells of oligos with miR-blocking activity. (mdpi.com)
  • MicroRNA inhibition of translation initiation in vitro by targeting the cap-binding complex eIF4F," Science , vol. 317, no. 5845, pp. 1764-1767, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • shown to regulate
  • Since its original discovery nearly 60 y ago ( 1 , 2 ), cAMP has been shown to regulate many different biological processes in multiple cell types ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cellular stresses, especially interferon induction have been shown to regulate Dicer activity ( Wiesen and Tomasi, 2009 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • translation
  • This Keystone Symposia meeting will bring diverse group of scientists together to discuss topics ranging from the molecular biology of protein translation to the characterization of enzymes in cell and tissue systems through the development and application of genomics and proteomics methods. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • miRs
  • One way of exerting its impact is through modulation of non-coding RNA levels, microRNAs (miRs) in particular, in the individual ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The genesis of miRs is a multistep process and eventually leads to the alteration of protein levels by RNA silencing. (frontiersin.org)
  • synthesis
  • cDNA synthesis was performed for each RNA sample using a Reverse Transcription system (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, USA), and oligo dT from the system was used to prime cDNA synthesis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • biological
  • MicroRNAs are involved in many biological processes and diseases, particularly multifactorial diseases, providing an excellent tool with which to research the mechanisms of these diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Therefore, innate immune response involving TLR signaling cascades must be tightly regulated by elaborate mechanisms to control its onset and termination. (jimmunol.org)
  • Neuroscience
  • MicroRNA-132 regulates recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the perirhinal cortex," European Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 2941-2948, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Glucocorticoid attenuates brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent upregulation of glutamate receptors via the suppression of microRNA-132 expression," Neuroscience , vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 1301-1311, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • 2017
  • Arabidopsis AGO4 binds 24-nt siRNAs, which are most likely generated in the nucleus by DCL3 in the RNA polymerase IV (RNAPIV) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2)-dependent pathway (for review, see Wendte and Pikaard, 2017 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • function
  • A preferred approach is to inhibit miR activity rather than up-regulate miR expression, since the former may reveal the function of the miR at physiological levels in cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The evolution and function of protein tandem repeats in plants. (nih.gov)
  • Hippocampal microRNA-132 mediates stress-inducible cognitive deficits through its acetylcholinesterase target," Brain Structure and Function , vol. 218, no. 1, pp. 59-72, 2013. (hindawi.com)