• Figure 3 illustrates why ribosome profiling of initiating ribosomes is particularly suitable for the detection of alternative protein isoforms (extensions and truncations of annotated CDS). (nih.gov)
  • A large number of alternative spliced transcripts are synthesized from the PML gene, resulting in a variety of PML proteins ranging in molecular weight from 48-97 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • A set of protein isoforms may be formed from alternative splicings or other post-translational modifications of a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through RNA splicing mechanisms, mRNA has the ability to select different protein-coding segments (exons) of a gene, or even different parts of exons from RNA to form different mRNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of protein isoforms may also result from a set of closely related genes that evolved from a single gene in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of isoforms could explain the discrepancy between the small number of protein coding regions genes revealed by the human genome project and the large diversity of proteins seen in an organism: different proteins encoded by the same gene could increase the diversity of the proteome. (wikipedia.org)
  • One single gene has the ability to produce multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three main components of a common alternative splicing mechanism: cis-acting regulatory sequences RNA-binding protein splicing factors RNA-RNA base pairing In short, during the transcription process, mRNA may include (enhance) or exclude (silent) one or multiple exons of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (jax.org)
  • Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase ( PARK2 ) gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease and juvenile Parkinson disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations. (hindawi.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Different forms of a protein may be produced from different but related genes , or may arise from the same gene by alternative splicing . (wikidoc.org)
  • A large number of isoforms are caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms , small genetic differences between alleles of the same gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • the ability to create catalytically different proteins from the same gene increases the diversity of the proteome. (wikidoc.org)
  • This protein has also been identified as interacting with the dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy gene, which is associated with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. (abcam.com)
  • 40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomal protein S4 is the only ribosomal protein known to be encoded by more than one gene, namely this gene, RPS4Y2 and the ribosomal protein S4, X-linked (RPS4X). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts is commonplace and this can generate multiple mRNAs from the same gene and hence multiple different proteins ( 9 , 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • MCP is expressed primarily as four isoforms that arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. (jimmunol.org)
  • MS/MS spectra were interrogated for novel splice isoforms using a nonredundant database containing an exhaustive three-frame translation of Ensembl transcripts and gene models from ECgene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 6p21 that encodes a non-histone DNA-binding protein involved in various cellular processes, such as regulating inducible gene transcription, integration of retroviruses into chromosomes, and the metastatic progression of cancer cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Overexpression of individual p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) isoforms also suppressed constitutive as well as sulforaphane- or Nrf2-induced ARE-dependent gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alternative splicing (AS) is common in multicellular eukaryotes, where it both contributes to protein diversity and quantitative regulation of gene expression. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Regulation of the plant disease resistance gene RPS by AS fine tunes its activity and limits damage inflicted by activated RPS4 protein ( Zhang and Gassmann, 2007 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the Aurora subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. (abnova.com)
  • PROTEIN kinase C (PKC) is an important signal transduction molecule that regulates many cardiac functions, including ion channels, contractility, gene expression, and hypertrophy. (asahq.org)
  • Myosin binding protein C1: a novel gene for autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis type 1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 20q13.1 that encodes an adapter protein which regulates a broad spectrum of general and specialised signalling pathways by binding to a large number of partners, usually by recognising a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sequence analysis of the cDNA clone revealed this protein to be a novel isoform of tropomodulin which is the product of a distinct gene, and is herein referred to as N-tropomodulin. (biologists.org)
  • Panel (a) shows an N-terminally extended isoform of the human RND3 gene which has an in-frame CUG initiating codon. (nih.gov)
  • Panel (b) shows a truncated isoform of the human CLK3 gene which was found to initiate at an AUG codon downstream of the annotated AUG start codon (Reprinted with permission from Ref 12. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 10b shows a truncated isoform of the human CLK3 gene which Lee et al.12 found to initiate at an AUG codon downstream of the annotated AUG start codon. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that are structurally related to snake venom disintegrins and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. (mybiosource.com)
  • Biochemical studies have shown that cell cycle arrest by sulforaphane occurred through an irreversible G 2 -M phase arrest with a reduction of key G 2 -M-regulating proteins ( 7 ), whereas overexpression of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 were implicated in sulforaphane-mediated apoptosis ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also tested the ability of each SR45 isoform to complement the sr45 - 1 mutant by overexpression of isoform-specific green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 6 Finally, transgenic mice with cardiac-specific postnatal overexpression of the PKCβ 2 isoform display cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte necrosis, multifocal fibrosis, and depressed in vivo left ventricular performance. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unexpectedly, we could not detect overexpression of PKCdelta protein by Western blot analysis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • a) Cell lysates of g42 (1 and 3?through downregulation of p85 Since our earlier report showed that most of glioblastoma multiform (GBM) individuals and GBM cell lines revealed undetectable protein expression of p42 and overexpression of p42 restricted brain tumor growth24 (Supplementary Figures 6a and. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • All these proteins are different both in structure and composition and this process is regulated by alternative splicing of mRNA and have a large impact in proteome diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using information from ion intensities we have estimated protein abundance levels and using rates of change in stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios we measured turnover rates and subcellular distribution for the HeLa cell proteome. (mcponline.org)
  • Moreover, we used SILAC to identify isoform-specific Cdc42 3'UTR-bound proteome with potential role in Cdc42 localization and translation. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • APL is associated with a reciprocal chromosomal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17, which results in a fusion protein comprising PML and the retinoic acid receptor alpha. (nih.gov)
  • This protein functions as an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate and suggests a role for insulin in the central nervous system. (abcam.com)
  • The IKKs bind NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) ( 25 , 33 ), a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase family that interacts with TNF receptor-associated factor 2 ( 20 ), linking IκB degradation and NF-κB activation to the TNF receptor complex. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study was to find out the influence of ET-1 and ET receptor antagonists on myocardial protein kinase C (PKC) regulation in uraemic cardiomyopathy. (portlandpress.com)
  • ET receptor blockers normalize these PKC isoforms. (portlandpress.com)
  • Den kaskad av händelser som sätts igång av att en tillväxtfaktor binder till sin receptor leder till att cellen börjar skicka ut axoner och dendriter (kallas gemensamt neuriter på odlade celler) och bildar transmittorsubstanser. (lu.se)
  • This most likely occurs from defects in postreceptor insulin signal transduction at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase ( 6 - 9 ) as well as defects in trafficking and/or function of GLUT4 ( 10 , 11 ), the major insulin-regulated GLUT isoform expressed in skeletal muscle ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The serine/threonine protein kinase C (PKC) family was first identified as intracellular receptor(s) for the tumor promoting agents phorbol esters. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Specific dysfunction of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in PD is suggested by reductions in the CMA membrane receptor, lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 2A, although whether LAMP2A is the only LAMP2 isoform affected by PD is unknown. (garvan.org.au)
  • Another isoform of GnRH, GnRH-II, has been isolated from the testis of numerous mammals and binds a specific receptor, GnRHR-II. (k-state.edu)
  • 31 muscles contained a single isoform, six muscles coexpressed two isoforms, including the psoas, where individual fibers expressed similar isoform ratios of 30:70 (3.4:3.3 MD). Gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of two other giant muscle proteins, nebulin and obscurin, demonstrated muscle type-dependent size differences of ≤70 kD. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, all of these properties not only vary between proteins, they are also dynamic and can vary for the same protein either at different times, or in different subcellular locations, depending on parameters such as cell cycle progression, growth rate, and signaling events. (mcponline.org)
  • In this study, we directly assessed the extent to which propofol stimulates PKC activation and subcellular translocation of individual PKC isoforms in rat ventricular myocytes. (asahq.org)
  • The donor site for the short isoform (P4.2S) agrees better with the consensus than the donor site for the long isoform (P4.2L) does. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The short isoform of ErbB3-binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p42, is considered to be a potent tumor suppressor in a true number of human cancers, although the mechanism by which it exerts this tumor-suppressive activity is unclear. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins constitute a conserved family of pre-mRNA splicing factors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, a double mutation affecting both serine-219 and the adjacent threonine-218 ( SR45.1 - T218A + S219A - GFP ) behaves like isoform 2, complementing the root but not the floral phenotype. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Immune response proteins include proteins that bind pathogens and activate serine proteases, which function in proteolytic cascades that trigger effector responses, such as antimicrobial peptide production and prophenoloxidase activation. (k-state.edu)
  • Taken together, our data demonstrate that both p38α and δ isoforms function to promote the late-stage differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors and are likely to be involved in functions related to erythrocyte membrane remodeling and enucleation. (pnas.org)
  • This interaction at the cytoplasmic membrane is crucial to the function of this protein, which may be involved in neuronal growth-cone guidance. (abcam.com)
  • Human protein 4.2 (P4.2) is a major membrane skeletal protein in erythrocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Individuals with P4.2 deficiency exhibit spherocytosis and experience various degrees of hemolytic anemia, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining stability and integrity of the membrane. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are a family of three mitochondrial porins and the most abundant integral membrane proteins of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). (rsc.org)
  • VDACs are known to be involved in metabolite/ion transport across the MOM and in many cellular processes ranging from mitochondria-mediated apoptosis to the control of energy metabolism, by interacting with cytosolic, mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins and other membrane channels. (rsc.org)
  • The autoinhibition/activation of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase) involves conformational changes in the membrane region of the protein that affect the amount of lipids directly associated with the transmembrane domain. (biochemj.org)
  • Brandizzi, Federica 2008-03-06 00:00:00 In plants, differentiation of subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dedicated to protein export, the ER export sites (ERES), is influenced by the type of export-competent membrane cargo to be delivered to the Golgi. (deepdyve.com)
  • We show that, in contrast to a tobacco Sar1 isoform, the two Arabidopsis Sar1 GTPases were localised at ERES, independently of co-expression of Golgi-destined membrane cargo in tobacco cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although both isoforms labelled ERES, one was found to partition with the membrane fraction to a greater extent. (deepdyve.com)
  • The different distribution of fluorescent fusions of the two isoforms was influenced by the nature of an amino acid residue at the C-terminus of the protein, suggesting that the requirements for membrane association of the two GTPases are not equal. (deepdyve.com)
  • The two proteins were identified by blot overlay assay, in which the proteins immobilized on the membrane were probed by epitope-tagged TMBr3, followed by detection with anti-epitope antibody. (biologists.org)
  • ADAM12 has 2 alternatively spliced transcripts, a shorter/soluble secreted form called S-isoform and a longer membrane-bound form call L isoform. (mybiosource.com)
  • Shorter isoforms are secreted, while longer isoforms are membrane-bound form. (mybiosource.com)
  • The N-terminal region harbours a RING-finger, two B-boxes and a predicted alpha-helical Coiled-Coil domain, that together form the RBCC/TRIM motif found in a large family of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • We identified members of the FAM83 family of proteins as partners of CK1 in cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The 14-3-3 (YWHA) proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of either isoform resulted in a partial reduction in the appearance of rods, whereas removing both isoforms resulted in their complete absence. (jneurosci.org)
  • As expected, transgenic plants overexpressing either isoform displayed both nuclear speckles and GFP fluorescence throughout the nucleoplasm. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In conclusion, evidence is provided that wild type PrPC has the intrinsic capacity to be expressed as either SecPrP or CtmPrP and that each isoform can partake in independent pathways. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Further evidence suggests that both isoforms participate in the etiology of infectious prion disease: upregulation of CtmPrP which leads to apoptosis and conversion of SecPrP to PrPSc and its down regulation lead to a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress, thus being able to reconcile how both gain and loss of PrPC functions may occur. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Es wird angenommen, dass die pathologische Isoform das sogenannte PrPSc die Umfaltung der zellulären Isoform des Prion-Proteins (PrPC) in weitere krankheitserregnde PrPSc katalysiert. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Detection of high levels of 2 specific isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins in synovial fluid from patients with joint inflammation. (jrheum.org)
  • Inhibition of phospholipase C with tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) blocked hypoxia-induced (α, β 2 , and ζ) and angiotensin II-induced (α, β 2 , γ, and ζ) translocation of PKC isoforms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of tyrosine kinase with genistein blocked translocation of PKC isoforms by hypoxia (β 2 and ζ) and by angiotensin II (β 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Because oxidative stress may directly activate PKC, and PKC activation appears to be involved in human heart failure, selective inhibition of the PKC isoforms may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of this pathological process. (ahajournals.org)
  • The order of combination of the proteins (CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and cytochrome P450 reductase) influenced the magnitude of catalysis inhibition as well as the ability of increased cytochrome P450 reductase to attenuate the change in activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast with Pi CDPK1, altering the localization of Pi CDPK2 did not noticeably alter the effect of overexpressing this isoform on pollen tube growth. (plantcell.org)
  • Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PKC-δV5 and -ε/δV5 in A7r5 cells showed substantial basal nuclear localization, while GFP-tagged PKC-ε and -δ/εV5 showed significantly less, indicating that the V5 region of PKC-δ contains determinants critical to its nuclear distribution. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies demonstrated the involvement of Jak/Stat, Shc/Grb2/Ras, Gab1/2, extracellular response kinase (ERK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/protein kinase B (PKB) pathways in the regulation of proliferation and cell viability ( 16 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • There are currently no approved treatments for FA, although experimental approaches involving up-regulation or replacement of mature frataxin protein through numerous approaches are being tested. (curefa.org)
  • Therefore, antibodies detecting the immunoreactive protein at 23.4 kDa could be misleading when testing for the up-regulation of frataxin in animal models. (curefa.org)
  • The data from mRNA analysis confirm the developmental regulation of 14-3-3 isoform expression in potato plants. (portlandpress.com)
  • All the repressed plants showed significant increases in nitrate reductase (NR) activity, suggesting that the regulation of NR occurs in vivo , and is not isoform-dependent. (portlandpress.com)
  • Discovering the serpin-1 isoforms that inhibit specific proteases enhances our understanding of the regulation of proteolytic cascades in M. sexta. (k-state.edu)
  • Although Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been shown to regulate the activity of NHE3, the potential reciprocal interaction of NHE3 to modulate the protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation of CFTR in epithelial cells is still unknown. (uzh.ch)
  • There is also interest in understanding the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of oogenesis and the cell cycle during oocyte maturation and in early development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All three RIBA isoforms are shown to be translocated into chloroplasts as GFP fusion proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • To identify proteins that may contribute to this retention, [35S]Met-labeled Gen10 fusion proteins with the 3i loops of the alpha2AAR (Val217-Ala377), alpha2BAR (Lys210-Trp354), and alpha2CAR (Arg248-Val363) were used as ligands in gel overlay assays. (rti.org)
  • This antibody will only recognise isoform 3 of the three reported isoforms. (abcam.com)
  • Significantly, this antibody, which will be useful for monitoring mature frataxin levels in monkey, human, and mouse tissues, did not detect a protein in mouse heart tissue at 23.4 kDa. (curefa.org)
  • Cell lysates had been immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody, and endogenous g85 proteins was established by immunoblotting with the anti-p85 … G42 prevents the activity of PI3E The capability of g42 to combine to g85 elevated the query of whether this discussion affects the lipid kinase activity of PI3E in growth cells. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In this review we summarize the data on the known PML isoforms and splice variants and present a new unifying nomenclature. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we exploit this model to test the hypothesis that cancer-specific alternative splice variants can be identified by in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of plasma proteins from this mouse model of pancreatic cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we have interrogated our modified ECgene database to identify both novel and known splice variants among circulating proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SR proteins function in both splice site recognition and spliceosome assembly. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression pattern of each of the four isoforms during erythroid differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. (pnas.org)
  • Due to the known cross-reactivity of the antibodies presently available for detection of UCP-2 and -3 proteins, we measured the mRNA expression of UCP-1, -2 and -3 in the rat kidney in order to detect the kidney-specific UCP isoforms. (springer.com)
  • Finally, the contribution of each isoform was assessed in mice inoculated with prions (PrPSc). (uni-koeln.de)
  • A comprehensive profile of PKC isoforms was measured by quantitative immuno-blotting in surgical ATAA specimens from 8 patients with MFS, 55 patients with TAV and a reference control group (n=21) of normal ascending aortic specimens. (ahajournals.org)
  • Quantitative phosphoproteomics of protein isoforms involved in EGF signalling. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • G-actin: despite its conserved nature, it has a varying number of isoforms (at least six in mammals). (wikipedia.org)
  • These data unveil a novel signaling cascade that coordinates and regulates rod differentiation through specific PKC isoforms in mammals. (jneurosci.org)
  • By coupling the CZE isoform separation with standard affinity capture assays, it may be possible to develop a cost-effective analytical platform for clinical diagnostics. (wiley.com)
  • Additionally, cytoprotection assays of individual clones of transfected isoforms bearing equivalent copy numbers demonstrated that the BC isoforms also provided enhanced protection in a classical pathway-mediated system and cleaved cell-bound C4b more efficiently than the C isoforms. (jimmunol.org)