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  • pathways
  • Here, we show that p53, one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancers, modulates the balance between the utilization of respiratory and glycolytic pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • clinical
  • While ribosomes, the critical working components of the protein synthesis machinery, are required in all cell types to translate the genetic code, only certain organs manifest clinical symptoms in ribosomopathies, indicating specific cell-type features of protein synthesis control. (prolekare.cz)
  • receptors
  • Innate receptors TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9, for example, recognize nucleic acid types that are normally found in bacteria and viruses ( 3 ), as do the RNA helicases melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We discuss how synergy between adaptive and innate immune responses can lead to autoimmunity, including aspects such as colocalization between receptor and ligand, the impact that methylation and other modifications have on the receptors' sensitivity to nucleic acids, and gene dosage of these receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • membrane
  • T4P fibers are assembled by a complex biogenesis machine that extrudes pili through an outer membrane (OM) pore formed by the secretin protein. (asm.org)
  • Aguilar PS, Cronan JE Jr, de Mendoza D (1998) A Bacillus subtilis gene induced by cold shock encodes a membrane phospholipids desaturase. (springer.com)
  • Heterologous expression, especially of eukaryotic membrane proteins, has also proven to be challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High yields of membrane protein from such hosts are however not guaranteed and several, to a large extent unexplored, factors may influence recombinant expression levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this report we have used four isoforms of aquaporins to systematically investigate parameters that may affect protein yield when overexpressing membrane proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also demonstrate that the increased expression does not appear to compromise the protein folding and the membrane localisation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein folding and membrane localisation seems to be unaffected by increased expression levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus a screen for elevated gene dosage can routinely be performed for identification of P. pastoris clones with high expression levels of aquaporins and other classes of membrane proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • overexpression
  • This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The development of expression systems in insect cells and yeasts has resulted in an increase in successful overexpression of eukaryotic proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pmp22
  • Increased expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA replication is characteristic and specific for the early stage in Pmp22-/- mice, supporting a primary function of PMP22 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. (uzh.ch)
  • 2002
  • Calin GA, Dumitru CD, Shimizu M et al (2002) Frequent deletions and down-regulation of micro-RNA genes miR15 and miR16 at 13q14 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (springer.com)
  • mice
  • Both Tr and Pmp22tg mice show strongly reduced expression of genes important for cholesterol synthesis at P4, a characteristic that is common to all three mutants at P60. (uzh.ch)
  • E ) MEFs isolated from Arf -null or wild-type mice were infected with VSV at an MOI of 5 PFU/cell and, 6 h after infection, the p53 protein levels were determined. (nih.gov)
  • A ) MEFs were isolated from Arf -null or wild-type mice and the p19ARF protein (and actin as a control) levels were determined in noninfected cells or at 6 h after VSV infection at an MOI of 5 PFU/cell (left panel), and after IFNβ treatment (right panel). (nih.gov)
  • profiles
  • Integrative analysis of DCE-MRI and gene expression profiles in construction of a gene classifier for assessment of hypoxia-related risk of chemoradiotherapy failure in cervical cancer. (fhi.no)
  • strongly
  • Furthermore, we show that heterologous expression levels of all four aquaporin isoforms strongly respond to an increase in recombinant gene dosage, independent of the amount of protein expressed from a single gene copy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By using this method we show that: (1) heterologous expression of all aquaporins investigated respond strongly to an increase in recombinant gene dosage (2) expression from a single recombinant gene copy varies in an isoform dependent manner (3) the poor expression observed for AtSIP1;1 is mainly caused by posttranscriptional limitations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • assay
  • Phosphorylation of EGFR measured with in situ proximity ligation assay: relationship to EGFR protein level and gene dosage in cervical cancer. (fhi.no)
  • H & E staining, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR were used to demonstrate lens defects, and to assay AD, tau and stress-related gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • structural
  • The fibers are composed of the pilin structural protein ( 21 ) and are both assembled and disassembled by complex biogenesis machines consisting of 10 to 18 proteins ( 57 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • viral
  • expressing the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) exhibit aberrations resembling viral leaf symptoms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Viral-like symptoms induced by the ectopic expression of the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus are citrus specific and do not correlate with the pathogenicity of the virus strain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that ARF protects against viral infection in a gene dosage-dependent manner, and that this antiviral action is mediated in part by PKR through a mechanism that involves ARF-induced release of PKR from nucleophosmin complexes. (nih.gov)
  • target
  • Undifferentiated ES cells express high levels of p53 exclusively in the wild-type conformation, immunoprecipitable by monoclonal antibody PAb246, and p53 was found to be functionally active as determined by its ability to bind DNA specifically and to activate transcription of target genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • TP53 status was determined by direct sequencing, and an in-house tissue microarray was constructed to identify protein expression of target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Frequently, copy number loss accompanies loss of heterozygosity where mutation of the retained copy results in likely biallelic inactivation of a target gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PcG and trxG regulators are recruited to specific chromosomal elements that are present in the cis-regulatory region of target genes ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we address the question of how epigenetic regulators without known DNA binding capabilities, such as Ash1 ( 16 ), recognize and bind target genes in chromatin. (sciencemag.org)
  • biogenesis
  • The protein translation machinery encompasses interrelated processes of ribosome biogenesis [ 1 ] as well as protein synthesis [ 2 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • All aspects of cell growth require protein synthesis and deficiency in machinery biogenesis or function can be anticipated to have systemic effects with reduced growth caused by translation insufficiency. (prolekare.cz)
  • occurs
  • Using a genetic model of increased Alzheimer precursor protein (APP) gene dosage that occurs in Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) we demonstrated lens disorganization & degeneration. (arvojournals.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • There are several lines of evidence indicating that SBDS functions in ribosome metabolism [ 10 , 11 ], specifically with eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (EIF6) and elongation factor Tu GTP binding domain containing 1 (EFTuD1) protein [ 12 , 13 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Due to its ability to grow to high cell densities and to its exceptionally strong and inducible AOX1 promoter [ 8 ], P. pastoris has become a potent alternative to the more studied baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic tool for recombinant protein production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • constitute
  • Secretins constitute a superfamily of proteins that assemble into multimers and support the transport of macromolecules by four evolutionarily ancient secretion systems: T4P, type II secretion, type III secretion, and phage assembly. (asm.org)
  • synthesis
  • Growth of all living things relies on protein synthesis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Failure of components of the complex protein synthesis machinery underlies a growing list of inherited and acquired multi-organ syndromes referred to as ribosomopathies. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we report a range of consequences of protein synthesis insufficiency with loss of a broadly expressed ribosome factor, leading to growth impairment and cell cycle arrest at different stages. (prolekare.cz)
  • These findings inform how cancer may initiate when growth is compromised and provide new insights into cell-type specific consequences of protein synthesis insufficiency. (prolekare.cz)
  • cell
  • From a comprehensive gene expression analysis using colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, and following the ontology (GO) analysis, SIX1 was identified as an EMT-related gene in CRC. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hypoxia-independent gene expression signature associated with radiosensitisation of prostate cancer cell lines by histone deacetylase inhibition. (fhi.no)
  • hAß expressed in the mouse lens produces posterior cataract and fiber cell degeneration with increased AD and stress-related gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • function
  • Brannan CI, Dees EC, Ingram RS, Tilghman SM (1990) The product of the H19 gene may function as an RNA. (springer.com)
  • One of the genes acquires a new beneficial mutation that creates a new function and at the same time causes loss of the old function (neofunctionalization). (blogspot.com)
  • Most of them seem to have the same function as the original gene suggesting that there hasn't been enough time to inactivate them by mutation. (blogspot.com)
  • In the activated state, the DNA-elements function as trithorax response elements (TREs) and recruit trxG proteins ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The gene encoding the potent endogenous telomerase inhibitor PinX1 (PIN2/TRF1-interacting, telomerase inhibitor 1) is located at human chromosome 8p23, a region frequently exhibiting heterozygosity in many common human cancers, but the function or functions of PinX1 in development and tumorigenesis are unknown. (nih.gov)
  • structures
  • Here, we determine that the lipoprotein transport pathway is not required for targeting the BfpB secretin protein of the EPEC T4P to the OM and describe the ultrastructure of the single particle averaged structures of the assembled complex by transmission electron microscopy. (asm.org)
  • important
  • Finally, we have identified a number of candidate genes that may play important roles in the disease process or in myelination per se. (uzh.ch)
  • Small interfering RNA-induced degradation of TRE transcripts attenuates Ash1 recruitment to TREs and Ubx expression, which suggests that noncoding TRE transcripts play an important role in epigenetic activation of gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • copy
  • DNA copy number has been shown to consistently correlate with gene expression level of a significant fraction of genes, with 44% to 62% of genes within a region of amplification being overexpressed ( 7 - 9 ), for example, gains of 11q13 and 17q21 harboring CCND1 and ERBB2 oncogenes in UCC ( 10 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • inactive
  • Brockdorff N, Ashworth A, Kay GF et al (1992) The product of the mouse Xist gene is a 15 kb inactive X-specific transcript containing no conserved ORF and located in the nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Brown CJ, Hendrich BD, Rupert JL, Lafreniere RG, Xing Y et al (1992) The human XIST gene: analysis of a 17 kb inactive X-specific RNA that contains conserved repeats and is highly localized within the nucleus. (springer.com)
  • present
  • Orchestrated gene expression changes were present when behavioral recovery was attained 3 months after the lesion, particularly among the bilateral premotor areas, and a large number of these genes are involved in plasticity. (deepdyve.com)
  • The authors concentrated on those genes that were clearly present in related species ( Xanopus tropicalis ). (blogspot.com)