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  • PMID
  • In addition to their function in the ribosome, many ribosomal proteins have some function 'outside' the ribosome [ PMID: 11290319 , PMID: 11114498 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The L8 protein complex consisting of two dimers of L7/L12 and L10 in Escherichia coli ribosomes is assembled on the conserved region of 23 S rRNA termed the GTPase-associated domain [ PMID: 10488095 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • thioesterase
  • The final module contains a thioesterase (TE) domain that hydrolyzes the thioester bond to release the fatty acid chain and coenzyme A. In the same manner, callystatin A biosynthesis starts with an acetate unit and elongates by either the malonate or the methyl malonate extender units, depending on the specific module. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being released from the thioesterase domain as a long fatty acid chain, the characteristic α,β-unsaturated lactone moiety is formed through a lactonization step to result in the final structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • We present here the crystal structure of the EntB protein that contains an N-terminal isochorismate lyase domain that functions in the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and a C-terminal carrier protein domain. (rcsb.org)
  • Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • While the crucial activities of decoding and peptide transfer are RNA based, proteins play an active role in functions that may have evolved to streamline the process of protein synthesis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Type one synthases involve large multidomain proteins containing all the sites necessary for polyketide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type two synthases contain active sites distributed among several smaller polypeptides, and type three synthases are large multi-protein complexes containing modules which have a single active site for each and every step of polyketide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of the AT to the stringent incorporation of specific extender unit in the synthesis of polyketide building blocks makes it vital that the mechanism and structure of these domains be well-elucidated in order to develop efficient strategies for the regiospecific engineering of extender unit incorporation in polyketide biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some bacteria such as Mycobacterium smegmatis as well as mammals and yeast use a type I synthase which is a large multifunctional protein similar to the synthase used for polyketide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both fatty acid synthesis and polyketide synthesis these CoA carriers will be exchanged for ACP before they are incorporated into the growing molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Each module contains different combinations of the ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoyl reductase (ER) domains that can modify and tailor the two-carbon subunits to form the resulting fatty acid chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • condensation domain
  • A cysteine specific NRPS module located on CurF follows after cyclopropyl ring formation, and due to the activity of a cyclizing condensation domain, forms a thiazole ring attached to the cylcopropyl moiety from previous reactions in the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • In eukaryotes, the proteins that perform the equivalent function to L7/L12 are called P1 and P2, which do not share sequence similarity with L7/L12. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Substrate
  • The KS domain receives the growing polyketide chain from the upstream module and subsequently catalyzes formation of the C-C bond between this substrate and an ACP-bound extender unit that is selected by the AT domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ACP is not substrate specific, which allows for the interaction with every domain present within its module. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family
  • Production of Mycobacterial Cell Wall Glycopeptidolipids Requires a Member of the MbtH-like Protein Family. (cuny.edu)
  • enzyme
  • There, the cargo will be released when the Ran-GTP protein is hydrolyzed by a cytoplasmic Ran-GTPase enzyme to form Ran-GDP. (wikipedia.org)
  • thioester
  • Each AT domain has an α-carboxylated CoA thioester (i.e. methylmalonyl-CoA) This specificity prevents non-essential addition of enzymes within the module. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • In order to carry out their function, the ACP domains require post-translational addition of a phosphopantetheine group to a conserved serine residue of the ACP. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • Functions via catalyzing acyl transfer from methylmalonyl-CoA to the ACP domain within the same module via a covalent acyl-AT intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • L7/L12 consists of two domains joined by a flexible hinge, with the helical N-terminal domain (NTD) forming pairs of homodimers that bind to the extended helix of L10. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • particularly
  • However, if the body is not getting enough calories from dietary sources or tissue stores (particularly of fat), protein may be used for energy. (encognitive.com)
  • The 8-stranded anti-parallel beta barrel fold of this domain is particularly interesting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Site
  • Cyanide binds a site in neighboring protein where iron normally binds, preventing oxygen from binding at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • assembly
  • Proteins S4 and S7, which initiate assembly of the 16S rRNA, are located at junctions of five and four RNA helices, respectively. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • directly
  • L7/L12 is the only ribosomal protein that does not interact directly with rRNA, but instead has indirect interactions through L10. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • complex
  • It is assumed that the stereochemistry results from the activity of the domains and the absolute configuration is specified by the overall PKS complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • maintenance
  • In wild-type cells, macromolecules in the nucleus with the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) can be transported to the cytoplasm by binding to a karyopherin protein called chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)/exportin 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Because Antimycin A binds to a specific protein in the electron transport chain, its toxicity can be highly species dependent because of subtle species specific differences in ubiquinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • elongated chain
  • The ACP first accepts the extender unit from the AT, then collaborates with the KS domain in chain elongation, and finally anchors the newly elongated chain as it undergoes modification at the β-keto position. (wikipedia.org)
  • entire
  • The BC and CT sites are approximately 55 Å apart, indicative of the entire BCCP domain translocating during catalysis of the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • These targeting signals are thought to be recognized in the TGN or endosomes, which leads to the sorting of cargo proteins into transport vesicles destined for the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Matveeva, E.A.;Price, D.A.;Whiteheart, S.W.;Vanaman, T.C.;Gerhardt, G.A.;Slevin, J.T. "Reduction of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 expression leads to a kindling-resistant phenotype in a murine model of epilepsy. (uky.edu)
  • a translocation domain that is capable of translocating the protease or protease fragment from within an endosome, across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol of the nociceptive sensory afferent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a membrane monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single transmembrane domain of 22 (mostly) non-polar residues crosses the plasma membrane in a single alpha helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • These inorganic phosphates are then bound to carrier proteins which deliver the inorganic phosphates to a specific high-affinity transport system, known as the Pst system, which transports phosphate across the cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulates
  • Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. (jci.org)
  • regulate
  • Together with histone acetylases (HATs), HDACs regulate acetylation level of histones (H3, H2AK5, H4K5, H4K12, H2B, H4K8, and H4K16) as well as some other proteins (p65 and myocyte enhancer factor 2) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The structure, function and molecular biology of Ca2+ dependent regulatory proteins (particularly calmodulin) and the target proteins which they regulate is under study. (uky.edu)
  • variants
  • At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein that is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • PRC1 and PRC2 are two protein complexes that modify the expression of p16 through the interaction of various transcription factors that execute methylation patterns that can repress transcription of p16. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • NPs may interact with these proteins in a similar way, and the interaction may lead to beneficial outcomes in vaccine delivery. (scirp.org)
  • The ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53, as it can interact with and sequester MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphatase
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 3.1.3.1) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A also known as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R15A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleavage
  • 5. The fusion protein according to claim 2, wherein the protease cleavage site is a protease cleavage site that is cleaved by a protease selected from Enterokinase, Factor Xa, Tobacco Etch virus (TEV), Thrombin or PreScission. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In Bacillus subtilis, the transfer is from the glycine cleavage system H protein, GcvH, to other lipoyl domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • We investigated the interaction of PEGylated and un-PEGylated PLGA NPs with Recombinant Human Mannose-Binding Protein (HMBP) in an effort to understand the effect of surface modification on their binding to the protein. (scirp.org)
  • Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins involved in epigenetic modification through methylation and repression of the promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Later on it has been characterized as a gene playing a role in ER stress-induced cell death, being a target of ATF4 that plays a role in ER-mediated cell death via promoting protein dephosphorylation of eIF2α and reversing translational inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • p16 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Carriers of germline mutations in CDKN2A have besides their high risks of melanoma also increased risks of pancreatic, lung, laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancers and tobacco smoking exacerbates carriers' susceptibility for such non-melanoma cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • The transcript initiated from the proximal promoter encodes the longer SCPx protein, and the transcript initiated from the distal promoter encodes the shorter SCP2 protein, with the 2 proteins sharing a common C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • apparatus
  • A second major area of study concerns depolarization depemndent reversible phodsphorylation of various protein factors of the vesicular neurosecretory apparatus and the possible dysfunction in this system in epilepsy. (uky.edu)
  • Proteins synthesized on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • 168 of 444 (37.8%) LPS-induced proteins were significantly reduced with the treatment of RGFP966, which mainly concentrated on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • These effects may be mediated by the defective functioning of estrogen via the estrogen receptor, which contains a zinc finger protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the LDL receptor protein is encoded by the LDLR gene on chromosome 19. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal domain of the LDL receptor, which is responsible for ligand binding, is composed of seven sequence repeats (~50% identical). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been speculated that the domain may have ancestrally acted as a spacer to push the receptor beyond the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The mupirocin cluster exhibits an atypical acyltransferase (AT) organization, in that there are only two AT domains, and both are found on the same protein, MmpC. (wikipedia.org)
  • fusion
  • For example, one would predict that mislocalization of the apical syntaxin 3 to the basolateral domain would allow the inappropriate fusion of apical transport vesicles with that domain and reduce the fidelity of polarized trafficking. (rupress.org)
  • 3. The fusion protein according to claim 1, wherein the non-cytotoxic protease is a clostridial neurotoxin L-chain or an IgA protease. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. The fusion protein according claim 1, wherein the translocation domain is the H N domain of a clostridial neurotoxin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • cell
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal domain of Beta2-adaptin is a protein domain is involved in cell trafficking by aiding import and export of substances in and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of this gene by ionizing radiation occurs in certain cell lines regardless of p53 status, and its protein response is correlated with apoptosis following ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)