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  • Advisory Committee
  • Children at special risk (e.g., sickle cell disease and asplenia) require as full protection as can be achieved using the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, with the more extensive 23-valent vaccine given after the second year of life: In 2001, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), upon advice from its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, recommended the vaccine be administered to every infant and young child in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • After waiting for the outcome of a trial underway in the Netherlands, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended the vaccine for adults over age 65 in August 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • The IgG subclass distribution in specific antibody responses varies according to the structure of the antigen, the way in which the antigen invades the host, especially the nature of the carrier, the epitopes' nature and quantity, the antigen's physiochemical nature, the amount of antigen, and the genetic make up of the host (Meulenbroek et al. (davidson.edu)
  • The present extension study, conducted in children originally vaccinated at 12-14 mo or 3-5 y of age, assessed antibody persistence and immune memory induced by an investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fifteen months post-vaccination, all participants underwent serum sampling to evaluate antibody persistence and participants previously vaccinated as toddlers received a polysaccharide challenge to assess immune memory development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Antibody responses to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens, serotype-specific anticapsular polysaccharide IgG responses, and antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) activity were measured 1 month after the two-dose primary series and 1 month after the toddler dose. (asm.org)
  • For both proteins, two booster vaccinations induced stronger antibody responses in mice than a single or no booster vaccinations, and 5 μg of protein induced similar levels of antibody responses as 20 μg. (asm.org)
  • Since optimal contact between B cells and T cells is required (via MHC II) to maximize antibody production, it is reasoned that the conjugate vaccine allows B cells to properly recruit T cells, this is in contrast to the polysaccharide form in which it is speculated that B cells do not interact optimally with T cells leading to the TI interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugate vaccine for Hib produced high antibody levels, well above what was needed for protection, among infants from injections starting at age 2 months and persisting for years beyond. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigenic
  • In this study, CRM 197 proteins from 3 different expression systems and 5 different manufacturers were obtained for an analytical comparability assessment using a wide variety of physicochemical and in vitro antigenic binding assays. (mendeley.com)
  • This results from the fact that bacteria contain many considerably varied antigenic epitopes, with significant differences in their protein and carbohydrate structures (Meulenbroek et al. (davidson.edu)
  • Disease-causing strains are classified according to the antigenic structure of their polysaccharide capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Vaccines targeting glycan structures at the surface of pathogenic microbes must overcome the inherent T cell-independent nature of immune responses against glycans. (rcsb.org)
  • and their accessibility by the immune cells and induction of immune responses specific for CPS make them excellent vaccine candidates [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • An understanding of the immunological basis of glycoconjugate interactions is still emerging but is already helping shape strategies to improve conjugate responses. (asmscience.org)
  • Pre-existing memory cells in unvaccinated adults may explain several features of Ab responses to polysaccharide vaccines and may play a role in acquiring the ability to respond to pure polysaccharides during infancy. (jimmunol.org)
  • Especially isotypes IgG2 and IgA2 are rarely used in systemic Ab responses to protein Ags ( 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The conjugate formulations show responses which are consistent with T-cell recruitment (namely a much stronger immune response). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ryan has particularly focused on analyzing immune responses against the polysaccharide coating of the Vibrio cholerae organism, the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP), working with Dr. Paul Kovac of the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • serotype
  • Continued occurrence of serotype 1 pneumococcal meningitis in two regions located in the meningitis belt in Ghana five years after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • infant
  • no booster) for infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine since January 2005, initially 7-valent (PCV7) then 13-valent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Children at special risk (e.g., sickle cell disease and asplenia) require as full protection as can be achieved using the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, with the more extensive 23-valent vaccine given after the second year of life: In 2001, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), upon advice from its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, recommended the vaccine be administered to every infant and young child in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate
  • Two models of carbohydrate-protein conjugate have been established, the single ended model (terminal amination-single method) and cross-linked lattice matrix (dual amination method). (hindawi.com)
  • meningitis
  • Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prior to introduction of the conjugate vaccine, Hib was a leading cause of childhood meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis in the United States, causing an estimated 20,000 cases a year in the early 1980s, mostly in children under 5 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasive
  • Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease vaccine trial was designed to assess the vaccine effectiv. (bioportfolio.com)
  • citation needed] After routine use of the vaccine in the United States from 1980 to 1990, the rate of invasive Hib disease decreased from 40-100 per 100,000 children down to fewer than 1 per 100,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCV7
  • A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been developed to improve protection against pneumococcal disease beyond that possible with the licensed 7-valent vaccine (PCV7). (asm.org)
  • Importantly, PCV7 can be administered concurrently with the other vaccines usually recommended in the first year of life without any significant immunologic interference and without any relevant reduction in safety and tolerability ( 2 , 20 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • diseases
  • According to the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), more than 1.5 million children (around three per minute) die each year from diseases that could be prevented by vaccines. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 Vaccination is the best strategy to prevent meningococcal diseases and meningococcal plain polysaccharide vaccines have been available for this purpose for many years. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The two became an inseparable research team, "dedicated to developing vaccines to protect children from bacterial diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases did further vaccine testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ryan's investigative work has focused on tropical, emerging and global infectious diseases, especially understanding host-pathogen interactions, and relating that knowledge to the discovery, development, and implementation of advanced diagnostics and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)