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  • neurons
  • Here we show that the Ras-related Rin GTP-binding protein, a GTPase that is expressed predominantly in neurons, is regulated by PACAP38 signaling, and loss-of-function analysis demonstrates that Rin makes an essential contribution to PACAP38-mediated pheochromocytoma cell differentiation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Signaling
  • RNA interference-mediated HSP27 silencing suppresses both PACAP38- and Rin-mediated neurite outgrowth, while expression of a constitutively active Rin mutant increases both HSP27 protein and phospho-HSP27 levels, supporting a role for Rin-HSP27 signaling in neuronal differentiation. (environmental-expert.com)
  • PMID
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, also known as thyroliberin (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary [ PMID: 4982117 , PMID: 4985794 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • TRH initiates all of these effects by interacting with receptors that belong to a class of G protein-coupled receptors, rhodopsin-type (GPCRA) [ PMID: 12683933 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There are two thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH1) which has been found in a number of species including rat, mouse and human [ PMID: 2175902 , PMID: 1377915 , PMID: 8395824 ] and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (TRH2) which has, only been found in rodents [ PMID: 9822707 , PMID: 11181534 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These TRH receptors are found in high levels in the anterior pituitary, and are also found in the retina and in certain areas of the brain [ PMID: 18984166 , PMID: 8387653 , PMID: 10628757 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The receptors activate phosphoinositide metabolism through a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein, probably of the Gq/G11 class [ PMID: 1333052 , PMID: 1334076 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • axis
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the hippocampus exerts a modulatory effect on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (sun.ac.za)
  • Abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in infancy and childhood have been shown to interfere with a normal linear growth and skeletal maturation. (intechopen.com)
  • However, recent studies have shown that TSH acts as a direct regulator of bone remodeling, highlighting the importance of integrity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis. (intechopen.com)
  • Human reproduction is controlled by the hypothalaic-pituitary gonadal axis laid down early in fetal development. (vwr.com)
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemical of high prevalence in the environment, which may affect the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis in adult rats. (publish.csiro.au)
  • In the female, LH and FSH act on the ovary to facilitate follicular maturation and to regulate the secretion of estrogen and progesterone, which act as feedback modulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Lin, S. H. (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes the initial step in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the target of various regulatory mechanisms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, such as being inhibited by increased estrogen levels in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • The neurotrophins are a family of proteins that regulate cell survival, differentiation and growth in the vertebrate nervous system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. (rupress.org)
  • Thyroid hormones regulate through binding to their nuclear receptors (TRs), which have been identified in many tissues and organs of the human body ( Yen, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The study of fibronectin expression in these cells suggests that FS cells may help regulate pituitary function, by interacting with hormone secreting cells through fibronectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • They act to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis, help regulate long bone growth (synergy with growth hormone) and neural maturation, and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hormones also regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, affecting how human cells use energetic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • gonadotropin
  • Braun T, Schofield PR, Sprengel R, 1991 Amino-terminal leucine-rich repeats in gonadotropin receptors determine hormone selectivity. (springer.com)
  • Themmen APN, Huhtaniemi IT, 2000 Mutations of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors: elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary-gonadal function. (springer.com)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors activate phospholipase C by coupling to the guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins Gq and G11. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • genes
  • Since it takes time for genes to be transcribed into RNA and translated into protein, the effects of estrogens binding to these classical estrogen receptors is delayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three vertebrate trk genes, which generate full-length and truncated receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)