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  • peptides
  • So far, most sperm chemoattractants that have been identified in non-mammalian species are peptides or low-molecular-weight proteins (1-20 kDa), which are heat stable and sensitive to proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Once the light energy has been absorbed directly by the pigment molecules, or passed to them by resonance transfer from a surrounding light-harvesting complex, they release two electrons into an electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • In animals, the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor is a mitochondrial protein (located in the outer mitochondrial membrane) characterised by its ability to bind with nanomolar affinity to a variety of benzodiazepine-like drugs, as well as to dicarboxylic tetrapyrrole intermediates of the haem biosynthetic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of the mitochondrial P450 systems, the specific residues involved in the binding of the electron transfer protein adrenodoxin to its reductase were identified as two basic Arg residues on the surface of the reductase and two acidic Asp residues on the adrenodoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • In the biosynthesis of fatty acids, the beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthases catalyze chain elongation by the addition of two-carbon units derived from malonyl-ACP to an acyl group bound to either ACP or CoA. (rcsb.org)
  • genes
  • The amino acid residue sequence of all three proteins that are coded for by these genes have also been sequenced using microsequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a cluster of genes, called fox genes, that encode membrane proteins that are similar to cytochrome c oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In complementation experiments, rat PBR (pk18) protein functionally substitutes for its homologue TspO in R. sphaeroides, negatively affecting transcription of specific photosynthesis genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • Molecular excitations, either originating directly from sunlight or transferred as excitation energy via light-harvesting antenna systems, give rise to electron transfer reactions along the path of a series of protein-bound co-factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These interactions between proteins are dependent on highly specific binding between proteins to ensure efficient electron transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) also known as fetuin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHSG gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, members of the skeletal muscle lipid droplet-associated proteins family associate with other proteins, as activator of adipose triglyceride lipase and its coactivator comparative gene identification-58, to regulate lipolysis in skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures of these supercomplexes are large, involving multiple light-harvesting complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • citation needed] Non-microbial non-self antigens can include pollen, egg white and proteins from transplanted tissues and organs or on the surface of transfused blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetuin-A belongs to the fetuin class of plasma binding proteins and is more abundant in fetal than adult blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus AHSG is a secreted partially phosphorylated glycoprotein with complex proeolytic processing that circulates in blood and extracellular fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partners
  • Another important distinction to identify protein-protein interactions is the way they have been determined, since there are techniques that measure direct physical interactions between protein pairs, named "binary" methods, while there are other techniques that measure physical interactions among groups of proteins, without pairwise determination of protein partners, named "co-complex" methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • For T-Cell Receptor (TCR) recognition, the peptide must be processed into small fragments inside the cell and presented by a major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • Disruption of homo-oligomers in order to return to the initial individual monomers often requires denaturation of the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • cellular
  • Our laboratory is focused on developing cellular and animal models for partial complex I deficiency. (pvlsi.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • serum
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • regulate
  • Together with histone acetylases (HATs), HDACs regulate acetylation level of histones (H3, H2AK5, H4K5, H4K12, H2B, H4K8, and H4K16) as well as some other proteins (p65 and myocyte enhancer factor 2) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, complex I is the main focus of our studies to elucidate the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in disease and the process of mitochondrial biogenesis. (pvlsi.org)
  • made
  • A Dead Sea salt scrub is usually made up of the Dead Sea salt the natural carrier oils. (dreampower.info)
  • This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like domains, 7 LDL-R class A domains, and 6 LDL-R class B repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • The C-terminal domain of Beta2-adaptin is a protein domain is involved in cell trafficking by aiding import and export of substances in and out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • e.g. a truncation of the receptor protein at residue number 660 leads to domains 3,4 and 5 of the EGF precursor domain being missing. (wikipedia.org)
  • essential
  • These biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins, essential macromolecules of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • PRC1 and PRC2 are two protein complexes that modify the expression of p16 through the interaction of various transcription factors that execute methylation patterns that can repress transcription of p16. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are conserved metalloproteases which aim to remove acetyl groups from lysine residues of targeted proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • increase
  • The increase in the sugar carrier dolichyl phosphate may reflect an increased rate of glycosylation in the diseased brain, and the increase in the endogenous anti-oxidant ubiquinone an attempt to protect the brain from oxidative stress, for instance, induced by lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • In this study, we used protein mass spectrometry to analyze protein alterations in LPS-treated primary microglia with the application of RGFP966. (hindawi.com)
  • open
  • Fluorescence level when all antenna pigment complexes associated with the photosystem are assumed to be open (dark adapted). (wikipedia.org)
  • this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein that is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • This transiently closes all PSII reaction centres, which prevents energy of PSII being passed to downstream electron carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • 168 of 444 (37.8%) LPS-induced proteins were significantly reduced with the treatment of RGFP966, which mainly concentrated on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • critical
  • The trinuclear Mg2+ complex is critical for binding DMAPP and stabilizing the pyrophosphate leaving group while the growing hydrocarbon tail wedges into a deep hydrophobic pocket. (wikipedia.org)