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  • specific
  • These include the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS), various T3-secreted effector proteins, H7 flagellin, and a number of specific adhesins, including F9 fimbriae and autotransporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • mRNA
  • To study the cytokine expression of myelin reactive T-cells in MS, we determined the cytokine mRNA levels in a panel of blood derived MBP-specific T-cell clones derived from MS patients (33 clones) and normal controls (21 clones), using a novel quantitative RT-PCR method. (uhasselt.be)
  • Although MS clones express higher levels of TNF alpha and IL-10 mRNA, these differences do not reach statistical significance, Interestingly, significantly increased TNF alpha and IFN gamma mRNA levels were observed among clones derived from HLA-DR2 positive versus HLA-DR2 negative MS patients. (uhasselt.be)
  • This HLA halpotype is known to be associated with MS. The high levels of TNF alpha and IFN gamma mRNA observed in MBP-reactive T-cell clones from MS patients indicate an important role of these cytokines in the disease process. (uhasselt.be)
  • The striking homology between p54nrb, PSF, and NONA/BJ6 defines a novel phylogenetically conserved protein segment, termed DBHS domain (for Drosophila behavior, human splicing), which may be involved in regulating diverse pathways at the level of pre-mRNA splicing. (cshl.edu)
  • Exportin 1 (XPO1), also known as chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1), is an eukaryotic protein that mediates the nuclear export of proteins, rRNA, snRNA, and some mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lymphoblast is a different form of a naive lymphocyte that occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an antigen (from antigen-presenting cells) and increased in volume by nucleus and cytoplasm growth as well as new mRNA and protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. (jimmunol.org)
  • Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. (jimmunol.org)
  • The concept of molecular mimicry describes a situation in which a foreign antigen can initiate an immune response in which a T or B cell component cross-recognizes self. (wikipedia.org)
  • This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in the reticuloendothelial system, and under modulation by T cells, and is closely intertwined with affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells that respond most avidly to antigen are preferentially allowed to proliferate and mature, a process known as clonal selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR interaction for myeloid leukocytes, and Ag-Ig-CD79 interaction for B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, the protein sequence of a humanized antibody is essentially identical to that of a human variant, despite the non-human origin of some of its complementarity determining region (CDR) segments responsible for the ability of the antibody to bind to its target antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Funded by the U.S. National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) between 2000 and 2015, its aim was to reduce the cost and time required to determine three-dimensional protein structures and to develop techniques for solving challenging problems in structural biology, including membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second phase, PSI-2, focused on implementing the high-throughput structure determination methods developed in PSI-1, as well as homology modeling and addressing bottlenecks like modeling membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new centers participating in PSI-2 included four specialized centers: Accelerated Technologies Center for Gene to 3D Structure (ATCG3D), the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG), the Center for High-Throughput Structural Biology (CHTSB), a branch of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa Consortium taking that institution's place), the Center for Structures of Membrane Proteins (CSMP), and the New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The TCR is a disulfide-linked membrane-anchored heterodimeric protein normally consisting of the highly variable alpha (α) and beta (β) chains expressed as part of a complex with the invariant CD3 chain molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Constant region is proximal to the cell membrane, followed by a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail, while the Variable region binds to the peptide/MHC complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the antibody uses its Fc region to bind to Fc Receptors on leukocytes, TCR is already docked onto the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCAP is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • cDNAs encoding p54nrb were cloned with probes derived from partial sequence of the purified protein. (cshl.edu)
  • The probe we used is composed by an Ibp AB promoter specifically activated by protein aggregates fused to a sequence coding the β-galactosidase, the activity of which becomes, therefore, indicative of the aggregation degree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Originally launched in February 2008, the SBKB is a free resource that provides information on protein sequence and keyword searching, as well as modules describing target selection, experimental protocols, structure models, functional annotation, metrics on overall progress, and updates on structure determination technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The step involving recombinant DNA provides an intervention point that can be readily exploited to alter the protein sequence of the expressed antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • The β-galactosidase probe was useful to identify which parameters could influence the aggregation of the model proteins and to set up an optimized expression protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also compared a set of expression vectors with various regulative features and found that the single characteristics, like promoter, copy number or polymerase, were not relevant for controlling the recombinant protein aggregation whilst the crucial factor resulted being the total expression rate of the system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an alternative approach a probe is used, the expression of which depends specifically on the presence of the aggregates, whilst it does not interact directly with the target protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mouse embryos that are Oct-4-deficient or have low expression levels of Oct-4 fail to form the inner cell mass, lose pluripotency and differentiate into trophectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the level of Oct-4 expression in mice is vital for regulating pluripotency and early cell differentiation since one of its main functions is to keep the embryo from differentiating. (wikipedia.org)
  • used conditional expression and repression in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine requirements for Oct-4 in the maintenance of developmental potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In in-vitro experiments of murine Embryonic Stem Cells, Oct-4 has often been used as a marker of stemness, as differentiated cells show reduced expression of this marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • As discussed above, this is achieved through recombinant DNA methods using an appropriate vector and expression in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • XPO1 (CRM1) originally was identified in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe in a genetic screen, and investigators determined that it was involved in control of the chromosome structure Exportin 1 mediates leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cholesterol-depleted cells, this protein binds to sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and mediates their transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The first phase of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI-1) spanned from 2000 to 2005, and was dedicated to demonstrating the feasibility of high-throughput structure determination, solving unique protein structures, and preparing for a subsequent production phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first phase of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI-1) lasted from June 2000 until September 2005, and had a budget of $270 million funded primarily by NIGMS with support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Tumor cell clones isolated from a rat 13762NF mammary adenocarcinoma and its spontaneous metastases were heterogeneous in their survival responses to continuous 42° heating. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although absolute accumulations of these HSP could not be directly compared between these clones, the higher rates of HSP synthesis in these tumor cell clones correlated with more thermal resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data support the working hypothesis that one or more of these HSP have a direct role in the mechanism(s) for inducing thermal resistance in rat tumor cells, but other factors such as total protein synthesis could modify the complex biochemical and phenotypic pathways involved in induced HSP and thermal resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The coiled coil region (amino acids 129-250) of the tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The transcription factors Oct-4, Sox2 and Nanog are part of a complex regulatory network with Oct-4 and Sox2 capable of directly regulating Nanog by binding to its promoter, and are essential for maintaining the self-renewing undifferentiated state of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, embryonic stem cell lines (which are cell lines derived from the inner cell mass), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human immune system typically produces both T cells and B cells that are capable of being reactive with self-antigens, but these self-reactive cells are usually either killed prior to becoming active within the immune system, placed into a state of anergy (silently removed from their role within the immune system due to over-activation), or removed from their role within the immune system by regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:14584 Leavenworth JW, Tang X, Kim HJ, Wang X, Cantor H. Amelioration of arthritis through mobilization of CD8+ regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein, also known as SREBP cleavage-activating protein or SCAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCAP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCAP is a regulatory protein that is required for the proteolytic cleavage of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Oct-4 is one of the transcription factors used to create induced pluripotent stem cells, together with Sox2, Klf4 and often c-Myc in mouse, demonstrating its capacity to induce an embryonic stem cell-like state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast Cells
  • This effect has also been seen with the Thomson reprogramming factors, reverting human fibroblast cells to iPSCs through Oct-4, along with Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Like other BET protein family members, BRD3 associates with acetylated lysine residues on histones and transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Oct-4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intestinal dysplasia resulted from an increase in progenitor cell population and the upregulation of β-catenin transcription through the inhibition of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Although transcriptional determination has usually been considered as a binary on-off control system, they found that the precise level of Oct-4 governs 3 distinct fates of ES cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, his research addressed whether the multiple immunological functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Autoimmune mechanisms involving T-cell responses to (a) myelin autoantigen(s), such as myelin basic protein (MBP), are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), Cytokines may play a central role in the regulation of the pathogenic autoimmune responses in MS and the mediation of tissue damage in the disease. (uhasselt.be)
  • The encoded proteins have provided clues to diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. (plantcell.org)
  • We distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance. (plantcell.org)
  • encoded by this gene
  • The protein encoded by this gene forms a heterotrimeric motor complex with kinesin family member 3A and KAP3 (kinesin accessory protein 3) to drive intra-flagellar transport and possibly to aid in chromosome movement during mitosis and meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an accessory subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) that is not directly involved in catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The encoded protein is a plus end-directed microtubule motor and can interact with the SMC3 subunit of the cohesin complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleosome-remodeling factor subunit BPTF is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BPTF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is highly similar to the largest subunit of the Drosophila NURF (nucleosome remodeling factor) complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Although commonly lymphoblast refers to a precursor cell in the maturation of leukocytes, the usage of this term is sometimes inconsistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. (jimmunol.org)
  • It was later deterimined that only two of these four factors, Oct4 and Klf4 were sufficient to reprogram mouse adult neural stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • Thus, a critical amount of Oct-4 is required to sustain stem cell self-renewal, and up- or down regulation induces divergent developmental programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is also the senior scientist, division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Advanced Medical Discovery Institute/Ontario Cancer Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Nature Immunology, 2004;5:516 Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck MBF, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryonic Drosophila cDNA library was screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a primer derived from the EGF-like repeats region of chicken tenascin-C protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables a turnover of neuroreceptors or other proteins to be maintained and thus the numbers of receptors can be fine tuned. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • These displaying phages can then be screened against other proteins, peptides or DNA sequences, in order to detect interaction between the displayed protein and those other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • We have also demonstrated that this enzyme is the most powerful molecular motor yet characterized and is by itself capable of overcoming mechanical obstacles to transcription that exist in living cells. (searlescholars.net)
  • This technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Lerner and Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Breitling and Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Atg proteins regulate autophagy, which is a lysosomal degradation pathway required for maintaining cell health, surviving periods of nutrient deprivation and also plays a role in cancer, neurodegeneration and immune responses to a diverse range of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteolytic active sites located in the inner side of a chamber formed by 4 stacked rings of 20S subunits, preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, open the gate of 20S core particle, and guide the substate into the proteolytic chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • Thus, the activation of the HBP by nutrients represents a biochemical link between nutrient availability, mitochondrial proteins, and energy expenditure, and it is likely to play an important role in the regulation of energy balance. (jci.org)
  • amino
  • This type of RNA utilizes the site outside of the nucleus for protein synthesis (or the joining of amino acids to create a protein). (cram.com)
  • In making proteins, 2 amino acids are joined together by a _______ bond. (cram.com)
  • The linear sequence of amino acids that is used to make a protein is its primary/secondary/tertiary structure? (cram.com)
  • The primary structure of these proteins contains an N-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence of 30-40 amino acids, which could represent a signal for translocation of the protein to the ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary structure, or amino acid sequence identity, of the proteins between paralogs is ~60% identical and between orthologs is ~90%, whilst between vertebrates and Drosophila or C. elegans is only 33-41% identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 is 37 kDa in size and composed of 324 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein that binds to one of those targets on its surface will remain while others are removed by washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nucleus, the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • Retention within the lumen of the ER correlates with an additional signal located at the C terminus, represented by the sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several additional interacting proteins are known, but not always is there an understanding of the specific function and relevance of this interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction was demonstrated when PML-NB disrupted cells were treated and Daxx relocalized with the PML-NB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the WIPI subfamily of WD40 repeat proteins, such as WIPI2, have a 7-bladed propeller structure and contain a conserved motif for interaction with phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the protein interaction and topological characteristics of this multisubunit complex, the 19S regulatory particle is composed of a base and a lid subcomplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • NFIX protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have created transgenic (Tg) rats expressing an antisense GHS-R mRNA under the control of the promoter for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), thus selectively attenuating GHS-R protein expression in the Arc. (jci.org)
  • Since protein expression in Escherichia coli represents the most facile approach (Mahalik et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daxx is uniformly expressed throughout the body, except in the testes and thymus, which have especially high expression of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • A. acroporae acquires excellent camouflage by harbouring photosynthetically competent, host-derived zooxanthellae and pigments of the green-fluorescent protein family. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • interactions
  • Like the two-hybrid system, phage display is used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for protein-DNA interactions using specially-constructed DNA libraries with randomised segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special degradative tag, the ubiquitinylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temporal
  • To meet such complicated demands in biological process via spatial and temporal proteolysis, protein substrates have to be recognized, recruited, and eventually hydrolyzed in a well controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)