Loading...
  • chromatin
  • Chromatid gradually helixes, chromatin and nucleoli are reappeared, endoplasmic reticulum vesicle combined to form nuclear envelope, the cell equatorial zone is narrowing, and finally completely split into two daughter cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The Rb-E2F/DP complex also attracts a histone deacetylase (HDAC) protein to the chromatin, reducing transcription of S phase promoting factors, further suppressing DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • It is also a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Reduced mRNA and protein expression of the genomic caretaker RAD9A in primary fibroblasts of individuals with childhood and independent second cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Schematic diagram of the amino acid sequences of E2F family members (N-terminus to the left, C-terminus to the right) highlighting the relative locations of functional domains within each member: Homo sapiens E2F1 mRNA or E2F1 protein sequences from NCBI protein and nucleotide database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic
  • If we can target CDT1, we can target two different mechanisms that cause genomic instability and eventually cell death. (northwestern.edu)
  • complexes
  • In repressors E2F4 and E2F5, pocket protein binding (more often p107 and p130 than pRB) mediates recruitment of repression complexes to silence target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo footprinting experiments obtained on Cdc2 and B-myb promoters demonstrated E2F DNA binding site occupation during G0 and early G1, when E2F is in transcriptional repressive complexes with the pocket proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Although its common function is seen as binding and repressing E2F targets, Rb is likely a multifunctional protein as it binds to at least 100 other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • activator
  • Activator E2F proteins can then transcribe S phase promoting genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F activator levels are cyclic, with maximal expression during G1/S. In contrast, E2F repressors stay constant, especially since they are often expressed in quiescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinases
  • In the less common type, such as the Bacillus subtilis sporulation factor Spo0B or the Caulobacter crescentus protein ChpT, the bundle is assembled as a protein dimer, with similarity to the structure of histidine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine
  • In fact, FAK immunoprecipitated from metabolically-labelled mitotic HeLa cells without tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors was phosphorylated on Ser only and was dephosphorylated in vitro by purified muscle PP1, with loss of phospho-Ser. (biochemj.org)
  • oncogenic
  • pRb is one of the targets of the oncogenic human papilloma virus protein E7, and human adenovirus protein E1A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Enhances the transcriptional repressor activity of NR1D1 through stabilization of NR1D1 protein levels by preventing its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. (uniprot.org)
  • When cells are not proliferating, E2F DNA binding sites contribute to transcriptional repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • E2F1-6 have DP1,2 heterodimerization domain which allows them to bind to DP1 or DP2, proteins distantly related to E2F. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pocket proteins such as pRB and related proteins p107 and p130, can bind to E2F when hypophosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite possessing a second domain with some similarity to ATPase domains, dimeric HPt proteins have not been shown to bind or hydrolyze ATP and lack key residues present in other ATPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The checkpoint clamp protein Rad9 facilitates DNA-end resection and prevents alternative non-homologous end joining. (nih.gov)
  • Checkpoint protein Rad9 plays an important role in nucleotide excision repair. (nih.gov)
  • sequence
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • PredictProtein (PP) is an automatic service that searches up-to-date public sequence databases, creates alignments, and predicts aspects of protein structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Users send a protein sequence and receive a single file with results from database comparisons and prediction methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • expression
  • Protein expression of cyclins D1 and E was markedly down-regulated in MCs plated on polymerized type I collagen for eight hours in 5% FCS, as compared with MCs on monomer type I collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Defects in PLK1 are associated with gastric, thyroid and B-cell malignancies, with increased expression linked to a worse prognosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An increase in ID expression is seen in embryonic and adult stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of ID proteins in neurons halts neuron axon growth and allows elongation of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Once a neutrophil is induced to release its NETs, it anchors itself in the tissue and breaks down its nuclear envelope: the barrier between the nuclear DNA and the rest of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers were intrigued by this, because normally cells only break down their nuclear envelope before they divide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells become spherical, the nucleolus and nuclear envelope have completely disappeared. (creativebiomart.net)
  • cancerous
  • Even though the investigators genetically silenced the proteins or blocked them with a drug in normal as well as cancerous tissues, the animals remained healthy, they report in the Oct. 16 issue of the journal Cancer Cell . (medindia.net)
  • The effect was global, affecting all the body cells, not just those that were cancerous. (medindia.net)
  • However, in the sporadic form, both alleles would need to sustain a mutation before the cell can become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • In this technique, a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on its outside while containing the gene for the protein on its inside, resulting in a connection between genotype and phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of M13 filamentous phage display, the DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest is ligated into the pIII or pVIII gene, encoding either the minor or major coat protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that resides in multiple locations in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in mRNA splicing and may play a role in site selection in alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL) located on chromosome 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular architecture of the pore, its degree of selectivity, the extent to which it incorporates lipids from the surrounding membrane, and the presence of portions of the protein that extend beyond the membrane all vary among viroporins and indicate that these proteins have a diverse array of functional roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alternative mechanism is illustrated by the SARS-CoV E protein, which forms a pore that integrates membrane lipids whose polar head groups influence ion selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • examples include the influenza A virus M2 proton channel protein, which is highly selective for protons and is active at low pH, and the Chlorella virus Kcv protein, which is selective for potassium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Ferroptosis is a kind of regulated cell loss of life driven by oxidative damage promoting lipid peroxidation, although detailed molecular regulators are largely unknown. (biomasswars.com)
  • This technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Lerner and Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Breitling and Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viroporins are capable of assembling into oligomeric ion channels or pores in the host cell's membrane, rendering it more permeable and thus facilitating the exit of virions from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligomers of these proteins, most often tetramers, form ion channels or pores of usually weak ion selectivity that permit diffusion of ions across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most well-studied and well-established function of viroporins is the permeabilization of the cell membrane to ions and small solutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of membrane polarization can promote viral yields through a variety of mechanisms that operate throughout the viral life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-enveloped viruses, the membrane permeability changes may be sufficient to induce cell lysis, thereby permitting the new virions to exit the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Pneumolysin (PLY), an associate from the category of Gram-positive bacterial, cholesterol-dependent, -barrel pore-forming cytolysins, may be the main proteins virulence aspect from the dangerous respiratory pathogen, (pneumococcus). (biomasswars.com)
  • Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and the relevant DNA sequence excised and sequenced to identify the relevant, interacting proteins or protein fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the origin and loading all the replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • requires the medium to be formulated for this purpose), or the appearance of turbidity (cloudiness indicating light scattering by bacterial cells) indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic
  • Daxx, a Death domain-associated protein, was first discovered through its cytoplasmic interaction with the classical death receptor Fas. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Similar life cycles have developed among certain amoebae, called cellular slime molds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viroporins are small and usually hydrophobic multifunctional viralproteins that modify cellular membranes, thereby facilitating virus release from infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many viroporins also have additional effects on cellular metabolism and homeostasis mediated by protein-protein interactions with host cell proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viroporins in the membranes of organelles such as the Golgi apparatus can influence those organelles' internal environments, which can modulate protein trafficking of viral proteins or protect the proteins from the low pH they would otherwise encounter in these cellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary mechanical role of catenins is connecting cadherins to actin filaments, specifically in these adhesion junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also code for citrate synthase and two subunits of 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, which plays the same role as alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in the TCA (tricarboxylic/Krebs/citric acid) cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The principle metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • vegetative cells
  • Within the fruiting bodies, cells begin as rod-shaped vegetative cells, and develop into rounded myxospores with thick cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boiling a sample for 30 minutes or more will kill virtually all vegetative cells present, but will not kill spores, which can germinate shortly thereafter and resume growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This works by killing vegetative cells, allowing germination of surviving spores, and killing the resulting vegetative cells before they have time to form further spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR-ABL protein can be inhibited by various small molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several additional interacting proteins are known, but not always is there an understanding of the specific function and relevance of this interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction was demonstrated when PML-NB disrupted cells were treated and Daxx relocalized with the PML-NB. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • interactions
  • Like the two-hybrid system, phage display is used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for protein-DNA interactions using specially-constructed DNA libraries with randomised segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • bacteria
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In this way, large libraries of proteins can be screened and amplified in a process called in vitro selection, which is analogous to natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage display is also a widely used method for in vitro protein evolution (also called protein engineering). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is significant variation in the consequences of viroporin depletion: while hepatitis C virus is incapable of propagation without its p7 protein viroporin, influenza A virus and HIV-1 see decreases in in vitro viral titer of 10- to 100-fold in the absence of their respective viroporins, but remain capable of propagation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In the study, reporter mice were used to track stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • The subcellular localization and function of this protein are modulated by post-translational modifications, including sumoylation, phosphorylation and polyubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)
  • insulin
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome? (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Junctions
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • Full length protein (Human). (abcam.cn)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • To meet such complicated demands in biological process via spatial and temporal proteolysis, protein substrates have to be recognized, recruited, and eventually hydrolyzed in a well controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • telomere length
  • May play also an essential role in telomere length maintenance and telomere capping in mammalian cells. (abcam.cn)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)