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  • antibody
  • Immunohistochemistry (below the yellow line) (G-O) was performed using an anti-apoC-II polyclonal antibody (G to I, K to M, O) or goat IgG as negative control (J, N). Positive signals (red) were found in secretory granule-like structures in distal epithelial cells on GD 19.5 (H) and PN0 (G) but not in later timepoints. (nih.gov)
  • fatty
  • This study demonstrates that apoC-II and LPL mRNAs correlate temporally and geographically with surfactant lipid synthesis in preparation for birth and suggests that fatty acid recruitment from the circulation by apoC-II-activated LPL is regionally modulated by apoC-II secretion. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA
  • The present study investigated whether the sites of apoC-II and LPL mRNA and protein accumulation are regulated in the mouse lung between gestation day 15 and postnatal day 10. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of apolipoprotein C-II mRNA and protein in the perinatal mouse lung. (nih.gov)
  • The major site of apoC-II mRNA synthesis (positive signal, blue) changed after birth (compare A to C). Positive signals were found in newly-formed septa (D, E) and macrophages (E) on PN 5. (nih.gov)
  • structures
  • Accumulation of apoC-II in secretory granule-like structures was not systematically observed, but was found in the distal epithelium only at the end of gestation and soon after birth, mainly in epithelia with no or small lumina. (nih.gov)
  • major
  • The major sites of apoC-II and LPL gene expression changed over time and were found mainly in the distal epithelium at the end of gestation but not after birth. (nih.gov)
  • epithelial cells
  • We propose a model where apoC-II is retained in secretory granules in distal epithelial cells until the lumina reaches a minimum size, and is then secreted when the rate of surfactant production becomes optimal. (nih.gov)
  • peptides
  • Altogether, we were able to identify 41 peptides** from 26 proteins that distinguish children with autoantibodies from those without," reports Dr. Christine von Toerne, a scientist in the Research Unit Protein Science who shared first authorship of the work with Michael Laimighofer, a doctoral candidate in Jan Krumsiek's junior research group at the Institute of Computational Biology. (eurekalert.org)
  • Two peptides -- from the proteins apolipoprotein M and apolipoprotein C-IV -- were particularly conspicuous and were especially differently expressed in the two groups," von Toerne adds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Differential expression was defined based on identification confidence (≥ 2 peptides per protein), statistical significance (Mann-Whitney p value ≤ 0.05) and a minimum of twofold change. (springer.com)
  • Peptides detected in at least 50% of samples per group were considered, resulting in a total of 3796 identified proteins (838 proteins based on ≥ 2 peptides). (springer.com)
  • amyloid
  • The results demonstrate the important role of both intra- and inter-subunit charge interactions in stabilizing apoC-II amyloid fibrils, a process that may be a key factor in determining the general ability of proteins to form amyloid fibrils. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Disease-associated misfolded proteins usually organize in β-sheet conformations that tend to form large aggregates and accumulate in different organs in the form of amyloid deposits, becoming toxic and leading to diverse protein misfolding diseases (PMDs), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), Parkinson's disease (PD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D), among many others . (plos.org)
  • The seeding-nucleation polymerization model explains how amyloid aggregates are formed ( Figure 1 ) [2] . (plos.org)
  • These diseases are commonly classified as protein-misfolding or amyloid diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The common structural motif of protein aggregates associated with these diseases is the formation of extended, β-sheet rich fibrils, referred to as amyloid. (frontiersin.org)
  • Serum amyloid A (SAA) is not only one of the acute phase proteins, but also a kind of apolipoprotein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • fatty acid recruitment
  • This study demonstrates that apoC-II and LPL mRNAs correlate temporally and geographically with surfactant lipid synthesis in preparation for birth and suggests that fatty acid recruitment from the circulation by apoC-II-activated LPL is regionally modulated by apoC-II secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our results suggested that fatty acid recruitment from the circulation by apoC-II-activated LPL could be regionally controlled by modulation of apoC-II secretion [ 12 ] for the purpose of surfactant synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, a role for these apolipoproteins in fatty acid recruitment from triglycerides for surfactant lipid synthesis can be postulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • namely
  • Using Hi-3C sequencing resource, we further determined that genomic loci of NONMMUT013718 and NONMMUT024103 might interact with and regulate the expression of nearby PCGs, namely Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2) and Apol10b (apolipoprotein 10b), respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Heterologous
  • Recent studies in animal models suggest that misfolded proteins associated with different diseases can synergize in a heterologous fashion, potentiating pathological mechanisms and accelerating disease progression. (plos.org)
  • expression
  • Do the sites of apoC-II and LPL gene expression change according to the stage of lung development and to protein localization? (nih.gov)
  • The major sites of apoC-II and LPL gene expression changed over time and were found mainly in the distal epithelium at the end of gestation but not after birth. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), A-II, and H was previously observed at 16 to 50-fold higher levels in the fetal than the adult mouse lung. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using this sensor combined with NH 4 application, we were able to identify C-to-U RNA editing-competent neurons and expression of C-to-U RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we established a new PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) approach to profile mRNA expression with regard to the genetic APOBEC1 dimorphism of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (iTLE) and found that the patients fall into two groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, these results demonstrate Apobec-1-dependent expression of RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons and identify the APOBEC1 80I/M-coding alleles as new genetic risk factors for iTLE patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Objective 1: To determine how expression or lack of expression of apolipoproteins or lipoprotein modifying enzymes in transgenic and knock-out mice affect diet-induced obesity, and type II diabetes. (europa.eu)
  • deficiency
  • The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989). "A nonsense mutation in the apolipoprotein C-IIPadova gene in a patient with apolipoprotein C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988). "Donor splice site mutation in the apolipoprotein (Apo) C-II gene (Apo C-IIHamburg) of a patient with Apo C-II deficiency" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 72 children, 25 showed the factor V Leiden mutation, 10 showed protein C deficiency, 2 showed antithrombin deficiency, and 4 showed primary antiphospholipid syndrome. (aappublications.org)
  • Three children with increased Lp (a) were heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation, and 1 girl showed additional protein C deficiency. (aappublications.org)
  • Often referred to as protein conformational or misfolding disorders, such diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyloidoses, α1-antitrypsin deficiency, and the prion encephalopathies to name a few. (frontiersin.org)
  • serum
  • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense causes human African sleeping sickness because it has evolved an inhibitor of TLF-1, serum resistance-associated (SRA) protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For every 4.5 kg (9.9 lb) of sustained weight loss, serum HDL levels increase 2 mg per dL (0.05 mmol per L). (aafp.org)
  • correlation
  • Correlation of the relative abundance of the proteins identified in the discovery set with their reported concentrations in the PPD was significant, confirming the validity of the quantification method. (springer.com)
  • Defects
  • In addition to Lp (a), defects of the protein C anticoagulant system, antithrombin, and antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated in children with arterial (n = 36) or venous (n = 36) thrombosis. (aappublications.org)
  • molecular
  • The coexistence of misfolded protein aggregates has been described in patients affected by several protein misfolding disorders, suggesting a possible molecular cross-talk between pathological processes associated with different diseases. (plos.org)
  • Extracellular
  • Extracellular processing of proapolipoprotein A-II in Hep G2 cell cultures is mediated by a 54-kDa protease immunologically related to cathepsin B". The Journal of Biological Chemistry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reelin is a large extracellular protein secreted by pioneer neurons that coordinates cell positioning during neurodevelopment. (sdbonline.org)
  • The product of the reeler gene, Reelin, is a secreted protein that has been proposed to act as an extracellular signpost for migrating neurons. (sdbonline.org)
  • The intracellular Dab1 protein receives a tyrosine phosphorylation signal from extracellular Reln protein. (sdbonline.org)
  • interaction
  • One putative mechanism for this cross-talk is a direct interaction between misfolded proteins, leading to cross-seeding of protein aggregation. (plos.org)
  • The interaction of these proteins with liquid/surface interfaces is a fundamental phenomenon with potential implications for protein-misfolding diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic
  • She discussed how genetic, epigenetic, and nutrient-gene interactions drive individual variation in nutritional kinetics and dynamics, 2 elaborated on the complexity of these interrelationships, and illustrated how this complexity is reflected in the variety of ways that different authoritative bodies have defined nutrigenomics. (nih.gov)
  • structural
  • This allows for the easy identification of regions and types of structural flexibility present in a protein of interest. (rcsb.org)
  • species
  • The elusive toxic species, whether monomeric or higher-order, may subsequently initiate a cascade of pathogenic protein-protein interactions that culminate in neuronal dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • pathways
  • The main research objectives of the project, as stated in Annex I of the application, is to decipher the cross-talk between the chylomicron and HDL metabolic pathways with adipose and hepatic tissues in the development of diet-induced obesity, type II diabetes and NAFLD. (europa.eu)
  • mDab1 is a phosphoprotein that appears to function as an intracellular adaptor in protein kinase pathways. (sdbonline.org)
  • Implications
  • Morales R, Moreno-Gonzalez I, Soto C (2013) Cross-Seeding of Misfolded Proteins: Implications for Etiology and Pathogenesis of Protein Misfolding Diseases. (plos.org)
  • insights
  • A detailed understanding of the influence of (sub)cellular surfaces in driving protein aggregation and/or stabilizing specific aggregate forms could provide new insights into toxic mechanisms associated with these diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interactions
  • The two-dimensional liquid environments provided by lipid bilayers can profoundly alter protein structure and dynamics by both specific and non-specific interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The precise timing of such interactions and the mechanisms by which altered protein conformations or aggregates trigger neuronal dysfunction are unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • chylomicrons
  • When activated by its essential co-factor, apoC-II, LPL catalyzes cleavage of acyl-glycerol esters in triglycerides of circulating VLDL and chylomicrons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conformational
  • Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that significant conformational changes can be induced in proteins encountering surfaces, which can play a critical role in nucleating aggregate formation or stabilizing specific aggregation states. (frontiersin.org)
  • neurons
  • These processes are severely disrupted by mutations in Reelin protein, which cause widespread misplacement of neurons and associated ataxia in reeler mutant mice. (sdbonline.org)