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  • nucleic acids
  • This resource is powered by the Protein Data Bank archive-information about the 3D shapes of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies that helps students and researchers understand all aspects of biomedicine and agriculture, from protein synthesis to health and disease. (rcsb.org)
  • Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids , proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, partial sequencing of a protein provides sufficient information (one or more sequence tags) to identify it with reference to databases of protein sequences derived from the conceptual translation of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1980, the amino-acid sequence of the first protein kinase was determined which helped geneticists understand the functions of regulatory genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynamics
  • SMC proteins represent a large family of ATPases that participate in many aspects of higher-order chromosome organization and dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of protein dynamics is most directly concerned with the transitions between these states, but can also involve the nature and equilibrium populations of the states themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flexibility can also be observed in very high-resolution electron density maps produced by X-ray crystallography, particularly when diffraction data is collected at room temperature instead of the traditional cryogenic temperature (typically near 100 K). Information on the frequency distribution and dynamics of local protein flexibility can be obtained using Raman and optical Kerr-effect spectroscopy in the terahertz frequency domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of multiple domains in proteins gives rise to a great deal of flexibility and mobility, leading to protein domain dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • The Rb-E2F/DP complex also attracts a histone deacetylase (HDAC) protein to the chromatin, reducing transcription of S phase promoting factors, further suppressing DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck for their work on G protein-coupled olfactory receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome encodes roughly 800 G protein-coupled receptors, which detect photons of light, hormones, growth factors, drugs, and other endogenous ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entrez Gene
  • The free text search will scan for complete and partial matches to gene names, gene synonyms, gene descriptions, external ( UniProt , Ensembl , NCBI Entrez Gene) gene and protein identifiers, protein classes , Gene Ontology identifiers and descriptions, antibody identifiers and image annotations. (proteinatlas.org)
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry , site-directed mutagenesis , X-ray crystallography , nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • The two major direct methods of protein sequencing are mass spectrometry and Edman degradation using a protein sequenator (sequencer). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mass spectrometry methods are now the most widely used for protein sequencing and identification but Edman degradation remains a valuable tool for characterizing a protein's N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The 1992 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Edwin G. Krebs and Edmond H. Fischer for describing how reversible phosphorylation works as a switch to activate proteins, and to regulate various cellular processes including glycogenolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domain motions are important for: catalysis regulatory activity transport of metabolites formation of protein assemblies cellular locomotion One of the largest observed domain motions is the 'swivelling' mechanism in pyruvate phosphate dikinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domain motions can be inferred by comparing different structures of a protein (as in Database of Molecular Motions), or they can be directly observed using spectra measured by neutron spin echo spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular evolution uses domains as building blocks and these may be recombined in different arrangements to create proteins with different functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Central Soya's Bunge Protein Division, in January, 2003, joined/merged with DuPont's soy protein business Solae, which in 1997 had acquired Ralston Purina's soy division, Protein Technologies International (PTI) in St. Louis. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformation
  • Generally, phosphorylation causes interdomain locking, which changes Rb's conformation and prevents binding to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary structure (string of amino acids) of a protein ultimately encodes its uniquely folded three-dimensional (3D) conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Other proteins are important in cell signaling , immune responses , cell adhesion , and the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins account for up to half of the immune system in humans and the other half is composed of interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, proteins involved in immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • To further evade the host immune response, Nef down-regulates the cell surface and total expression of the negative immune modulator CTLA-4 by targeting the protein for lysosomal degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The cerberus-related cytokines, together with Dan and DRM / Gremlin, represent a group of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists that can bind directly to BMPs and inhibit their activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human embryonic development, Cerberus and the protein coded by GREM3 inhibit NODAL in the Wnt signaling pathway during the formation of the germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) has the ability to reversibly inhibit DNA replication through transcriptional repression of DNA replication factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are isolated to inhibit the virus from replicating in a host's cells and stop it from spreading to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • Cerberus (Cer) is a gene that encodes a cytokine (a secreted signaling protein) important for induction and formation of the heart and head in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • The degradation of proteins occurs within the cells, as the amino acids have to pass through certain membranes before being able to be used for different processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the proteins are broken down into amino acids through proteolysis, these amino acids will be able to pass through the membranes of bacteria and will once again congregate to form new proteins that the bacteria needs to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such proteins can be separated from the biological membranes only using detergents, nonpolar solvents, or sometimes denaturing agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microorganisms
  • Researchers at MSU have discovered that protein nanowire-expressing microorganisms are highly effective at precipitating and immobilizing heavy metal elements, including uranium, without compromising the organism's viability. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Microorganisms like Geobacteraceae produce protein nanowires that bind and reductively precipitate heavy metals such as uranium. (technologypublisher.com)
  • carboxyl group
  • The end with a free amino group is known as the N-terminus or amino terminus, whereas the end of the protein with a free carboxyl group is known as the C-terminus or carboxy terminus (the sequence of the protein is written from N-terminus to C-terminus, from left to right). (wikipedia.org)
  • undergone
  • The Pokeweed antiviral protein and the Zinc-Finger antiviral protein are two major antiviral proteins that have undergone several tests for viruses, including HIV and influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • The soy cotyledon storage proteins, important for human nutrition, can be extracted most efficiently by water, water plus dilute alkali (pH 7-9), or aqueous solutions of sodium chloride (0.5-2 M ≈ 30-120 g/l) from dehulled and defatted soybeans that have undergone only a minimal heat treatment so the protein is close to being native or undenatured. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphatase
  • In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the first protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) was purified and the discovery, as well as, cloning of JAK kinases was accomplished which led to many in the scientific community to name the 1990s as the decade of protein kinase cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • This first step to protein catabolism is breaking the protein down into amino acids by cleaving their peptide bonds, also known as proteolysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a subclass of Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli , a distantly related protein known as MukB plays an equivalent role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once linked in the protein chain, an individual amino acid is called a residue, and the linked series of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms are known as the main chain or protein backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerberus also known as CER1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CER1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not much is known about this protein, but it is found in many creatures and has been around for possibly millions of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • A generalized method often referred to as amino acid analysis for determining amino acid frequency is as follows: Hydrolyse a known quantity of protein into its constituent amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • ultimately
  • it is the combined effect of all of the amino acid side chains in a protein that ultimately determines its three-dimensional structure and its chemical reactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecule
  • It is thought that the cycle of ATP binding and hydrolysis modulates the cycle of closing and opening of the V-shaped molecule, but the detailed mechanisms of action of SMC proteins remain to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Collectively, these proteins redirect SWI/SNF to activate the cardiac program of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene name abbreviated RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is dysfunctional in several major cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • If both alleles of this gene are mutated early in life, the protein is inactivated and results in development of retinoblastoma cancer, hence the name Rb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein FAM25 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM25BP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • Once formed, proteins only exist for a certain period of time and are then degraded and recycled by the cell's machinery through the process of protein turnover . (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The contribution of each residue or node to the characteristic path length (CPL), defined as an average of the shortest path length between all pairs of nodes in the network, provides an estimate of the effect of node connectivity on communication pathways in a protein. (pnas.org)
  • Malfunction of GPCR [G Protein-Coupled Receptor] signaling pathways are involved in many diseases, such as diabetes, blindness, allergies, depression, cardiovascular defects, and certain forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Antiviral proteins are proteins that are induced by human or animal cells to interfere with viral replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person's susceptibility to viral infections could be linked to variations in this antiviral protein and also how severe a person reacts to certain viruses like influenza or the more dangerous H1N1 strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nef stands for "Negative Factor" and although it is often considered dispensable for HIV-1 replication, in infected hosts the viral protein markedly elevates viral titers. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 have acquired proteins such as Nef which perform a wide array of functions including the identification of CTLA-4 before it reaches the PM and tagging it for degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is often desirable to know the unordered amino acid composition of a protein prior to attempting to find the ordered sequence, as this knowledge can be used to facilitate the discovery of errors in the sequencing process or to distinguish between ambiguous results. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Harvard Medica
  • Researchers at Harvard Medical School (HMS) have found an antiviral protein, IFITM3 that could slow and even prevent deadly viruses from infecting and spreading. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent evidence (preprinted at BioRxiv) suggests widespread human protein phosphorylation on multiple non-canonical amino acids, including motifs containing phosphorylated histidine, aspartate, glutamate, arginine and lysine in HeLa cell extracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • These additional head-like structures may contain varying characteristics of a normal head (eye or eyes, brain, notochord) depending on the ratio of overabundant Cerberus to other proteins associated with anterior development that Cerberus inhibits (Wnt, Nodal, and BMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Portions of protein structures often deviate from the equilibrium state. (wikipedia.org)