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  • Genes
  • Transfection of each of the retinoblastoma family genes in neuroblastoma cells was able to induce neural differentiation, to inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation, and to down-regulate B-myb promoter activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data suggest a major contribution of retinoblastoma proteins, and especially of pRb2/p130, in B-myb promoter regulation and demonstrate the induction of neural differentiation by p107 and pRb2/p130, suggesting a role of these proteins in triggering differentiation-specific genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It wasn't until the mid 1800s that DNA and genes were discovered, which would form the basis of modern genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important first step of the genetic engineering process is to identify useful genes to transform into the target organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic screens can be carried out to determine potential genes and further tests are then used to identify the best candidates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These heritable epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation of the promoter regions of genes that affect sensitivity to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic modification in response to stress results in molecular and genetic alterations that in turn results in mis-regulated or silenced genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal separation and postnatal maternal abuse also increases DNA methylation at regulatory regions of BDNF genes in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, leading to potential stress vulnerability in future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress can also result in inheritable changes DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). These changes lead to altered expression of these genes in offspring that in turn leads to decreased stress tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date all regulatory regions (promoters) and genes, that have been examined in detail at the molecular level, have TRAM characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study of human chromosome 22 showed a correlation between Z-DNA forming regions and promoter regions for nuclear factor-I. This suggests that transcription in some human genes may be regulated by Z-DNA formation and nuclear factor-I activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studied the contribution of genetic factors to the origin of thrombosis, including the role of mutations of several genes, related or not to the blood coagulation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, his studies on markers linked to the mitochondrial DNA, the Y chromosome, several nuclear genes and VNTRs have contributed to the understanding of the genetic diversity of the Amerindian populations, the relationship with the founder populations, and the black Brazilian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype
  • Since lipid levels may be under genetic control [ 2 , 5 ], the identification and characterization of genetic variants associated with plasma concentrations may provide some insight into the genotype-phenotype relationship [ 3 ] and allow for lifestyle adjustments to improve health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • binds
  • Furthermore, we demonstrated that Myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ) represses c-myb promoter activity and binds to the c-myb T:H:H:T G-quadruplexes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, STI571 induces an accumulation of FoxO3a activity which in turn binds directly to an FHRE in the promoter to activate Bim expression and apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nucleic Acid
  • This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variation
  • Modern descriptions of biological evolution will typically elaborate on major contributing factors to evolution such as the formation of local micro-environments, mutational robustness, molecular degeneracy, and cryptic genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • This first intron, along with the 5'-flanking region, contains a consensus sequence for muscle-specific regulatory factors that includes a CC(A + T-rich)6GG box, a M-CAT-box CAATCCT, and two myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 1 boxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrate
  • Results from chemical footprinting, circular dichroism and RNA and DNA polymerase arrest assays on oligonucleotides representing the GGA repeat region of the c-myb promoter demonstrate that the element is able to form tetrad:heptad:heptad:tetrad (T:H:H:T) G-quadruplex structures by stacking two tetrad:heptad G-quadruplexes formed by two of the three (GGA)(4) repeats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • neural
  • These results indicate the impact of this OXTR genetic variant on individual differences in social affective neural processing. (scirp.org)
  • functional
  • According to Dover, TRAM is a genetic system that has features of Non-mendelian inheritance Turnover, copy number and functional Redundancy And Modulatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • A novel G-quadruplex-forming GGA repeat region in the c-myb promoter is a critical regulator of promoter activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Deletion of one or two (GGA)(4) motifs destabilizes this secondary structure and increases c-myb promoter activity, indicating that the G-quadruplexes formed in the c-myb GGA repeat region may act as a negative regulator of the c-myb promoter. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings show that the T:H:H:T G-quadruplex-forming region in the c-myb promoter is a critical cis-acting element and may repress c-myb promoter activity through MAZ interaction with G-quadruplexes in the c-myb promoter. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The greatest increase in activity is observed when the Z-DNA sequence is placed three helical turns after the promoter sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). (biomedsearch.com)
  • vector
  • These expression vectors were then co-transfected into SHM (syrian hamster myocyte) cells with a Cx43 promoter-Luciferase vector. (biomedsearch.com)
  • diseases
  • After his post-doctoral training at the Oxford University, in the laboratories of Professor Sir David J. Wetherall, whose group was at the time establishing the molecular bases of the thalassemias, he returned to Brazil and started a research group with a major scientific interest in the genetic bases of hematological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data demonstrated that this Black population is significantly different from its U.S. or Caribbean counterparts, with implications for the medical genetic studies that compare these populations and for the understanding of the hereditary diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic make-up of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sexual organism could henceforth pass on some of its genetic material to produce new individuals and could itself become disposable with respect to the survival of its species. (wikipedia.org)
  • existence
  • These findings taken together with results of familial studies [ 3 ], point to the existence of genetic susceptibility to the renal lesions caused by chronic hyperglycemia. (beds.ac.uk)
  • site
  • Using this site-specific ChIP, we were able to confirm four previously described Sp1 binding sites within egfr promoter region to be occupied by Sp1 in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • material
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified and aided identification and isolation of genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inducible
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • Following λ-red operon activity induction, a linear, double-stranded cassette encoding a selectable marker, such as antibiotic resistance, is transformed into the cells in place of the target gene and incorporated into the DNA behind a specific inducible promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation
  • Using an Sp1 binding site mutation construct we showed that mdm2 repression did not absolutely require Sp1 binding sites in the hTR promoter, suggesting the possibility of pRB/Sp1 independent mechanisms of repression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sequence
  • On average, only 3 to 4 of the 6 base pairs in each consensus sequence are found in any given promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insertion of a SINE into the coding sequence of a gene can have deleterious effects and unregulated transposition can cause genetic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • SINEs are also implicated in certain types of genetic disease in humans and other eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When inserted near or in exons, SINEs can cause improper splicing, become coding regions, or change the reading frame, often leading to disease phenotypes in humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • In 1983, Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali at the New York Department of Health devised a strategy to produce recombinant DNA vaccines by using genetic engineering to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The C-terminal is important for the substrate specificity and binding of Dot1 because the region carries a positive charge, allowing for a favorable interaction with the negatively charged backbone of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The EF-1 alpha promoter in these systems is derived from the human EEF1A1 gene that expresses the alpha subunit of eukaryotic elongation factor 1. (clontech.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated that NF-Y and Sp1 interact with the human telomerase RNA (hTR) promoter and play a central role in its regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However contrary to the animal model claims, human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to have healthy phenotype (no glomerulopathy development), but show physiological differences in their responses to respiratory challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Phosphorylated on some or all of the serine and threonine residues present in the C-terminal region. (genecards.org)
  • The pre-SET region contains cysteine residues that form triangular zinc clusters, tightly binding the zinc atoms and stabilizing the structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Targeting of p21 promoter is responsible for inducing cell differentiation, which is promoted by modifying the DNA nuclear microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • There was also established in Maasin a Court of First Instance, then known as the Promoter Fiscal, where all minor administrative and other cases from Palompon to Hinunangan were heard. (wikipedia.org)
  • core
  • The SET domain itself contains a catalytic core rich in β-strands that, in turn, make up several regions of β-sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each PRMT has a unique N-terminal region and a catalytic core. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The above consensus sequences, while conserved on average, are not found intact in most promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial promoters with complete conservation of the -10 and -35 elements have been found to transcribe at lower frequencies than those with a few mismatches with the consensus. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • Finally, we show that NF-Y mediated transactivation of the hTR promoter was also suppressed by mdm2 in a dose-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)