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  • assays
  • These assays monitor the growth rate of a cell population, detect daughter cells in a growing population, or analyze the proportions of cells in different stages of the cell cycle. (abcam.com)
  • Alternatively, cell proliferation can also be analyzed with cell viability assays that measure the rate of cellular metabolism, such as MTT, MTS, resazurin and similar assays, mitochondrial membrane potential dependent dyes, cellular esterase cleaved dyes, ATP and ADP assays, and assays that measure glycolytic flux and oxygen consumption. (abcam.com)
  • The dyes in dye dilution assays are retained within cells over multiple generations. (abcam.com)
  • Daughter cells receive half of the dye of parent cells and assays are analyzed on a flow cytometer. (abcam.com)
  • interference
  • The expression of TMEM45A was then suppressed in two ovarian cancer cell lines, HO-8910 and A2780, by RNA interference. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Next, the endogenous expression of Nek7 was efficiently knocked down in Y79 and SO‑RB50 cells using a lentivirus‑mediated RNA interference approach, as confirmed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • genes
  • This study shows that hsa-miR-33 family members not only regulate genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism and insulin signaling, but in addition modulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In their studies, numerous authors confirmed that many mutations of suppressive genes, among others, TP53, CDKN2A, BRCA2, or DPC4, which control cellular proliferation and prevent neoplasia in normal conditions, mutate in the intraepithelial neoplasia, similarly to cancer . (termedia.pl)
  • This is due, in part, to the fact that Runx2 interacts with many cellular proliferation genes on a transcription level, such as c-Myb and C/EBP, as well as p53/ These functions are critical for osteoblast proliferation and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes take information from the cell to ensure that it is ready to divide, and will halt division if not (when the DNA is damaged, for example). (wikipedia.org)
  • A 200-amino acid region of human MNDA is strikingly similar to a region in the proteins encoded by a family of interferon-inducible mouse genes, designated Ifi-201, Ifi202, and Ifi-203, that are not regulated in a cell- or tissue-specific fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its pattern of expression and/or regulation, MNDA resembles IFI16, suggesting that these genes participate in blood cell-specific responses to interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • H2A.Z.1 is pivotal for hepatocarcinogenesis by selectively modulating cell cycle and EMT-regulatory proteins ( 22 ), whereas H2A.Z.2 is a mediator of cell proliferation and drug sensitivity in malignant melanoma ( 26 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Disordered functioning of a cell process is usually caused by the dysfunction of the proteins taking part in the regulation of this process, resulting in uncontrolled proliferation of cells with the active participation of Ki67 protein, Cyclin D1, or PCNA protein. (termedia.pl)
  • It occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell surface or ECM proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells, these processes are deregulated because the proteins that control them are altered, leading to increased growth and cell division within the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer, these tumour suppressor proteins are altered so that they don't effectively prevent cell division, even when the cell has severe abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domain has been verified to interact with other proteins to form complexes or interact with other strcuutres of the cell such as the cytoskeleton or plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overexpression of HOX lncRNA promotes cancer because it causes epigenetic regulator proteins to relocate and the chromatin of the cell to be remodeled. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Cancer cells have defects in the control mechanisms that govern how often they divide, and in the feedback systems that regulate these control mechanisms (i.e. defects in homeostasis). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Enforced expression of cyclin A1 in cells containing mutant H2A.Z.1 rescued tumor formation in a mouse model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings suggest that SMYD3-mediated H2A.Z.1K101 dimethylation activates cyclin A1 expression and contributes to driving the proliferation of breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overexpression of SMYD3 enhances cell growth and cancer invasion, while reduced SMYD3 expression results in growth suppression ( 11, 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Zińczuk J, Zaręba K, Guzińska-Ustymowicz K, Kędra B, Kemona A, Pryczynicz A. Expression of chosen cell cycle and proliferation markers in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. (termedia.pl)
  • We observed that HS-NAP reduced PCNA expression in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Differences in CART expression and cell cycle behavior discriminate sympathetic neuroblast from chromaffin cell lineages in mouse sympathoadrenal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conditional deletion of Hand2 reveals critical functions in neurogenesis and cell type-specific gene expression for development of neural crest-derived noradrenergic sympathetic ganglion neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results were also confirmed by Western blot analysis, with decreased expression of G1/S and G2/M promoting cell cycle machinery including cyclin D3, cyclin B1, CDK4, and CDK6. (hindawi.com)
  • Expressions of miR-214-3p in 98 HCC patients and three HCC cell lines were detected by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to explore the association of miR-214-3p expression and clinicopathological characteristics. (springer.com)
  • Medium coexpression of DEPDC1B with ECT2 in cell cycle regulation and DNA synthesis was verified by similarity of expression in various tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence of over-expression of HOXA11-AS as a causative factor of cell proliferation is seen when proliferation is blocked, once the lncRNA expression is knocked-down, or removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Our results showed that CAP could suppress BCa tumorigenesis by inhibiting its proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. (mdpi.com)
  • transcription
  • This coreceptor then initiates a cell signaling cascade in the muscle, which includes the activation of transcription factors in the SMAD family - SMAD2 and SMAD3. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • In 1995, she joined the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, USA, serving successively as head of the Molecular Carcinogenesis section of the ABL-Basic Research Program (1995-97), director of the Molecular Virology and Carcinogenesis Laboratory (1997-98), interim director of the ABL-Basic Research Program (1998-99) and chief of the Regulation of Cell Growth Laboratory, Division of Basic Sciences (1999-2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • a group of low-molecular-weight compounds (discovered in collaboration with the Department of Chemistry at the University of Glasgow) have recently shown promise in cell-culture studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • Likewise, we observed that HS-NAP caused a concentration-dependent accumulation of HT-29 cells in the G0/G1 phase (Figure 2B), while fewer cells were in S and G2/M phases. (nih.gov)
  • HS-NAP increased the population of cells in G0/G1 phase from 37.2% (control cells) to 48.8%, 69.7%, and 77.3% at 36, 72, and 144 µM, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The population of cells in the S phase also decreased from 40.9% in control cells to 32.0% (at 36 µM), 17.7% (at 72 µM), and 13.3% (at 144 µM). (nih.gov)
  • in this regard, we calculated that approximately 21.9% of cells were in the G2/M phase when no drug was added (control), but this changed to 19.2% (at 36 µM), 12.6% (at 72 µM), and 9.4% (at 144 µM). (nih.gov)
  • Selumetinib, had a phase 2 clinical trial for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which demonstrated an improvement in PFS, and is now in phase III development in KRAS mutation positive NSCLC (SELECT-1, NCT01933932). (wikipedia.org)
  • colony formation
  • The cells were cultured in soft agar to evaluate anchorage-independent colony formation, and we found that the number of transformed colonies was significantly reduced in the SY-1-treated COLO 205 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • growth
  • Normal cells grow and divide, but have many controls on that growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells do not need stimulation from external signals (in the form of growth factors) to multiply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are generally resistant to growth-preventing signals from their neighbours. (wikipedia.org)
  • To tightly control cell division, cells have processes within them that prevent cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • With Allan Weissman and others, she showed that Mdm2 is a ubiquitin ligase which targets p53 for degradation by the proteasome, thus ensuring levels of the protein remain low when the cell is not under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding protein
  • Background Cardiac stress may trigger production of the 40\kDa peptide fragment produced from the amino terminus from the cardiac myosin\binding protein C. function, cell viability, hypertrophy, or possibility of success. (biomasswars.com)
  • processes
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho proteins regulate the dynamic assembly of cytoskeletal components for several physiologic processes, such as cell proliferation and motility and the establishment of cell polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In patients diagnosed with melanoma, about 40-60% carry mutations in BRAF [ 4 ], which can lead to increased cellular proliferation and increased oncogenic cell activity [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Using ODC transgenic mouse models, Gilmour showed that elevated ODC and polyamines promote tumorigenesis via multiple functional mechanisms including increasing proliferation, angiogenesis, chromatin remodeling and invasiveness, while also suppressing the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the genome is tightly condensed into chromatin (composed of DNA and histone proteins), so enzymes, such as histone methyltransferases, must overcome this inaccessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylation of histones is important biologically because it is the principal epigenetic modification of chromatin that determines gene expression, genomic stability, stem cell maturation, cell lineage development, genetic imprinting, DNA methylation, and cell mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F1
  • Mutations of the GLI2 gene are associated with several phenotypes including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, preaxial polydactyly type IV, postaxial polydactyly types A1 and B. In human keratinocytes Gli2 activation upregulates a number of genes involved in cell cycle progression including E2F1, CCND1, CDC2 and CDC45L. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 acts as a tumor suppressor by binding to CDK4/6 and preventing its interaction with cyclin D. This interaction ultimately inhibits the downstream activities of transcription factors, such as E2F1, and arrests cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent
  • In culture, fibroblasts can reach a maximum of 50 cell divisions before becoming senescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • C57BI/6 human T cells and Bcl3 transgenic ms T cells. (abcam.cn)
  • Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple skin tumours on the ears, tail, trunk and dorsal aspect of the paw, resembling those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • antisense
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 15-d-Δ12,14-PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and PGJ2 share a common mono-unsaturated cyclopentenone structure as well as a set of similar biological activities including the ability to suppress inflammation responses and the growth as well as survival of cells, particularly those of cancerous or neurological origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Th1 and Th17 cell populations were also expanded in collagen-immunized TNFR p55 −/− but not p75 −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • The expression of IL-12/IL-23 p40 was up-regulated in lymph nodes (LN) from p55 −/− mice, and the expansion of Th1/Th17 cells was abrogated by blockade of p40. (rupress.org)
  • After onset of arthritis, mice were treated with soluble TNFR-Fc for 10 d and the production of IL-17 and IFNγ by LN cells was determined by ELISA. (rupress.org)
  • Significantly increased IL-17 and IFNγ production was observed after stimulation of LN cells from TNFR-Fc-treated mice with collagen or anti-CD3 mAb in vitro, and a trend toward enhanced production of these cytokines was observed even in unstimulated LN cells ( Fig. 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • In the study, reporter mice were used to track stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The response to platelet-rich plasma was greater in the case of anulus fibrosus cells than of nucleus pulposus cells. (blogspot.com)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, activation of p16 through the ROS pathway, DNA damage, or senescence leads to the buildup of p16 in tissues and is implicated in aging of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Surprisingly, our data show that TNFα is an important negative regulator, not only of IL-17 but also of IFNγ production by T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Hsc70 additionally serves as a positive regulator of cell cycle transition and carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • We review data from studies of chronic myelogenous leukemia and K562 cells to illustrate these principles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving BCL3 may be a cause of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). (abcam.cn)
  • mitosis
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • In humans, IDH exists in three isoforms: IDH3 catalyzes the third step of the citric acid cycle while converting NAD+ to NADH in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isoforms IDH1 and IDH2 catalyze the same reaction outside the context of the citric acid cycle and use NADP+ as a cofactor instead of NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)
  • regulators
  • Ferroptosis is a kind of regulated cell loss of life driven by oxidative damage promoting lipid peroxidation, although detailed molecular regulators are largely unknown. (biomasswars.com)
  • senescence
  • It has been associated with an extensive number of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, cell senescence, and aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • inducible
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • cancer
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • Within the citric acid cycle, isocitrate, produced from the isomerization of citrate, undergoes both oxidation and decarboxylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • It is also essential for development of nerval system by programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, loss of Gli3 leads to abnormal patterning and loss of Gli2 affects the development of ventral cell types, most significantly in the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Glycine-induced activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may also result in hyper- or depolarising reactions of the prospective cells with regards to the intracellular Cl? (biomasswars.com)
  • intracellular
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)