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  • gene
  • Although adult stem cell populations are found in most adult tissue, the bone marrow is an ideal source of stem cells because it is easily accessible and can be used for cell and gene therapy [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The gene encoding stem cell factor (SCF) is found on the Sl locus in mice and on chromosome 12q22-12q24 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, gene therapy and organ transplantation have been performed using bone marrow cells (BMCs) [ 4 - 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Page 6 cells would likely be the preferred source of cells in settings where bone marrow transplantation is currently used and gene therapy is being considered. (google.com)
  • OPN (also known as early T cell activation gene-1, or eta-1 ), is a secreted, highly acidic glycoprotein with pleiotropic effects ( 5 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Expansion of human stem cells in ex vivo culture will likely have important applications in transplantation, stem cell marking, and gene therapy (2). (scielo.br)
  • Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR), also known as proto-oncogene c-Kit or tyrosine-protein kinase Kit or CD117, is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the KIT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells can be directly obtained from normal human mesenchymal tissues without using artificial manipulations such as gene introduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene expression pattern and level may explain why Muse cells are pluripotent but without tumorigenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GATA family of transcription factors, which contain zinc fingers in their DNA binding domain, have emerged as candidate regulators of gene expression in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple mutations on GATA2 gene have been recently implicated as the cause of primary immunodeficiency in patients with MonoMAC Syndrome, and cases of dendritic cell, monocyte, B NK lymphoid deficiency and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of thymocyte development is to produce mature T cells with a diverse array of functional T cell receptors, through the process of TCR gene rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most genes, which have a stable sequence in each cell which expresses them, the T cell receptor is made up of a series of alternative gene fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to create a functional T cell receptor, the double negative thymocytes use a series of DNA-interacting enzymes to clip the DNA and bring separate gene fragments together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcome of this process is that each T cell receptor has a different sequence, due to different choice of gene fragments and the errors introduced during the cutting and joining process (see section on V(D)J recombination for more information on TCR rearrangement). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular disadvantage in the rearrangement process is that many of the combinations of the T cell receptor gene fragments are non-functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cortex is the location of the earliest events in thymocyte development, where T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymocytes that reach the medulla have already successfully undergone T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection, and have been exposed to a limited degree of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • For research, with a retroviral transduction and bone tissue marrow transplantation (BMT) strategy, a recent research found that Adiphenine HCl IC50 the DNMT3A R882H mutation induced aberrant hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell proliferation and culminated in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia-like disease at a year post BMT in every the transplanted mice . (medicalconsultingcenter.com)
  • Mice with SCF or c-Kit mutations have severe defects in the production of mast cells, having less than 1% of the normal levels of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfaunation of microbiota from HBM-fed preterm infants or a newly identified and cultured Propionibacterium strain, P. UF1, to germfree mice conferred protection against pathogen infection and correlated with profound increases in intestinal Th17 cells. (jci.org)
  • Here, we have reported that miR-146a-deficient mice developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). We bred miR-146a-deficient mice with 2D2 T cell receptor-Tg mice to generate 2D2 CD4 T cells that are deficient in miR-146a and specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), an autoantigen in the EAE model. (jci.org)
  • Using studies that combine OPN-deficient mice and exogenous OPN, we demonstrate that OPN modifies primitive hematopoietic cell number and function in a stem cell-nonautonomous manner. (rupress.org)
  • The hD1R-expanded cells had the enhanced homing and maintained long-term hematopoietic stem cell repopulation capacity in the bone marrow of immunodeficient nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, systemic administration of hD1R promoted the in vivo regeneration of donor cells in recipient mice and accelerated hematopoietic recovery, particularly in settings wherein the HSPCs dose was limiting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neutrophils Are Indispensable for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization Induced by Interleukin-8 in Mice Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (jove.com)
  • citation needed] Knockout studies in mice suggested that this cytokine plays an essential role in lymphoid cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mice which genetically lack IL-7 receptor exhibit thymic atrophy, arrest of T-cell development at the double positive stage, and severe lymphopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of IL-7 to mice results in an increase in recent thymic emigrants, increases in B and T cells, and increased recovery of T cells after cyclophosphamide administration or after bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike ES and iPS cells, transplanted Muse cells in testes of immunodeficient mice -a commonly used experiment to test the tumorigenicity of stem cells- have not been reported to form teratomas, even after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • By continuous intravital imaging in mice, researchers were able to explore the structure of the stem cell niche and to obtain the fate of individual stem cells (SCs) and their progeny over time in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in mice has shown that G-CSF may decrease bone mineral density. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was only natural to ask where these two great classes of cells arose, and after much work two cell types with some strong stem cell properties were isolated and defined - CMP, the common myeloid progenitor and CLP, the common lymphoid progenitor for mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature lymphocytes are a critical part of the immune system that (with the exception of memory B and T cells) have short lives measured in days or weeks and must be continuously generated throughout life by cell division and differentiation from cells such as common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • regeneration
  • Therapeutic regeneration of molecularly engineered and transplanted autologous stem cells in neurological and cardiovascular diseases due to inability of self-regeneration or repair of endogenous stem cells at sites of inflammation or disease at various stages of progress for regeneration of the damaged tissue depending upon the sites and nature of degeneration. (hoajonline.com)
  • The best hope for regeneration of these permanently damaged cells is optic stem cell therapy combined with continued drug treatments or other exogenous biomaterial implants depending upon the relevant ophthalmological condition. (hoajonline.com)
  • While significant progress has been made in the preclinical stages, the clinical application of cardiac cell therapy is limited by technical challenges, including inability to isolate a pure population of cardiac-specific progenitors capable of robust engraftment and regeneration, lack of appropriate pre-clinical animal models, uncertainty about the best mode of delivery, paucity of adequate imaging modalities, and lack of knowledge about the fate of transplanted cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, there are vast developments in tissue engineering, which involve leveraging of technologies from biomaterials, molecular medicine, biochemistry, nanotechnology, genetic and biomedical engineering for regeneration and cell expansion targets to restructure and/or repair human organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This self-regeneration capacity gives rise to alternatives to classical cellular therapies whereby administration of growth factors such as Thymosin β4 for cell activation and migration are solely necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac tissue engineering is a new technology based on the use of combinations of cells with regenerative capacity, biological and/or synthetic materials, cell signaling agents to induce the regeneration of an organ or damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Stem cell factor (also known as SCF, KIT-ligand, KL, or steel factor) is a cytokine that binds to the c-KIT receptor (CD117). (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanoblasts express the KIT receptor, and it is believed that SCF guides these cells to their terminal locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are the only terminally differentiated hematopoietic cells that express the c-Kit receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of P. UF1 to its cognate receptor, SIGNR1, on dendritic cells resulted in the regulation of intestinal phagocytes. (jci.org)
  • We reasoned that the potential for OPN to affect stem cell function in the niche was great given its abundance in the proper geographic location, its receptor expression on stem cells, and the evidence for it affecting processes in other cells that might be relevant for stem cell physiology. (rupress.org)
  • CD117 is a cytokine receptor expressed on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells as well as other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this receptor binds to stem cell factor (SCF) it forms a dimer that activates its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, that in turn phosphorylates and activates signal transduction molecules that propagate the signal in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their atomic investigation of mutant KIT receptor which emphasized on the EAL region provided a better insight into the understanding of the sunitinib resistance mechanism of the KIT receptor and could help to discover new therapeutics for KIT-based resistant tumor cells in GIST therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine is found to be a cofactor for V(D)J rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta (TCRß) during early T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able to recognize short protein sequences (peptides) that are presented on MHC. (wikipedia.org)
  • To eliminate thymocytes which have made a non-functional T cell receptor, only cells that have successfully rearranged the beta chain to produce a functional pre-TCR are allowed to develop beyond the DN3 stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells The G-CSF-receptor is present on precursor cells in the bone marrow, and, in response to stimulation by G-CSF, initiates proliferation and differentiation into mature granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the FLT3 receptor can lead to the development of leukemia, a cancer of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) is a cell surface receptor protein that is commonly used as a marker for ESCs and EPCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory T cell subtypes: Central memory T cells (TCM cells) express CD45RO, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), and L-selectin (CD62L). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In vivo , the normal myocardial architecture has a unique three-dimensional extracellular matrix, offering cyclic mechanical stress (from rhythmic heart beating), electric stimulation, cell-cell signaling and topographical cues among the cardiomyocytes (CM). Upon injury, the normal architecture is disrupted and CMs are replaced by scar tissue and proliferating fibroblasts, which in turn results in compromise of the heart's structural integrity and adverse remodeling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adult stem cells are involved in the repair of tissue and in maintaining a balance between stem cell and differentiated cell populations by asymmetrical cell division [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are arguably the most well-characterized tissue-specific stem cells, with decades of basic research and clinical application providing not only a profound understanding of the principles of stem cell biology, but also its potential pitfalls. (hindawi.com)
  • In the past, both normal hematopoietic tissue and leukemias have been the tissue samples of choice in the application of flow cytometry, and some of the most recent applications with these tissues are presented here. (google.com)
  • Since marrow is not a homogeneous tissue and changes with age, one should expect that its MR appearance will vary depending on the relative proportion of red and yellow marrow, cellularity and density of trabecular bone in the spine and on the type of sequence used for the acquisition. (amazonaws.com)
  • These studies unequivocally suggest that Sca-1+ cells isolated from cardiac tissue are a subset of cardiac progenitor cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being used by researchers in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, to artificially reconstruct human tissue which has been previously damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replenish new functional cells through spontaneous differentiation into tissue-compatible cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are two main principles by which cells facilitate therapeutic action: Stem cell or progenitor cell engraftment, differentiation, and long term replacement of damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells then integrate into the site of injury, replacing damaged tissue, and thus facilitate improved function of the organ or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue is a rich source of MSCs (or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, AdMSCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue host progenitor cells with reported interesting cardiomyogenic and vasculogenic potential in the sense that they improve heart functions and reduce infarction size in rodent animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue is also a source of mesenchymal stem cells and have demonstrated positive outcomes in terms of cardiovascular tissue remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cardiac remodling remains limited due to limited cell residency, impact of mechanical forces onto cell survival and tissue hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphopoiesis is now usually used interchangeably with the term "lymphocytopoiesis" - the making of lymphocytes - but other sources may distinguish between the two, stating that "lymphopoiesis" additionally refers to creating lymphatic tissue, while "lymphocytopoiesis" refers only to the creation of cells in that tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, numerous new populations of memory T cells were discovered including tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells, stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) occupy tissues (skin, lung, etc..) without recirculating. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Cord blood transplantation (CBT) from an unrelated donor has been increasingly used as an alternative transplant method for adult patients without human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-compatible related or unrelated donors. (haematologica.org)
  • Adult marrow does not appreciably enhance to visual inspection after intravenous gadolinium contrast is administered. (amazonaws.com)
  • In MSC therapy the cells are extracted from the adult patient's bone marrow via a procedure called bone marrow aspiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells remain in an undifferentiated state throughout adult life. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that correct culturing conditions of adult stem cells needs to be improved so that adult stem cells can maintain their stemness over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in contrast to the adult where all lymphocytes originate in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells express transporters of the ATP-binding cassette family that actively pump a diversity of organic molecules out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As BLSC's and VSEL cells are present in virtually all adult tissues, including lung, brain, kidneys, muscles, and pancreas Co-purification of BLSC's and VSEL cells with other populations of adult stem cells may explain the apparent pluripotency of adult stem cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • We analyzed 250 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of polycythemia vera (n=120) or essential thrombocythemia (n=130), who underwent transplantation due to progression to myelofibrosis (n=193) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=57) and who were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry between 1994 and 2010. (haematologica.org)
  • In recognition of his research accomplishments and leadership in moving basic science discoveries in stem cell biology into the clinic, he was elected President of the International Society of Cellular Therapy (1995-1997), Treasurer of the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (1995-2002) and President of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (1999-2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Biochemical assays showed that a subpopulation of Sca-1+ cells (15%) possess significantly high ALDH1 activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells can also be identified by functional assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative medicine
  • In 2006 Eaves retired as required by provincial law at that time, becoming Professor Emeritus of Hematology and spending more time on several companies he founded to further the fields of cellular therapy and regenerative medicine - STEMCELL Technologies, STEMSOFT Software Inc. and Malachite Management Inc. These companies continue to grow under his leadership and by 2016, STEMCELL had over 900 employees making Canada's largest biotechnology company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several different forms of stem cells have been identified and studied in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • To help discover the therapeutic uses of these stem cells they are grown in laboratories or by using medication to stimulate new cell growth within the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, an ideal treatment must possess both immunomodulating properties to control irregular autoimmune responses to prevent further damage and regenerative properties to stimulate natural repair mechanisms and replace damaged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • Conversely, the injection of SCF increases mast cell numbers near the site of injection by over 100 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, mast cells, melanocytes in the skin, and interstitial cells of Cajal in the digestive tract express CD117. (wikipedia.org)
  • It matures into the megakaryocyte, erythrocyte, mast cell or myeloblast based on the presence of specific factors that encourage the cell to choose a lineage to follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • graft
  • The potential arrhythmic risk may be attributed to differences in electrophysiological maturity 4 , 5 , 6 , gap junction isotypes, cell orientation and wave propagation between graft and the host myocardium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As one may expect, the use of allogenic stem cells may predispose an individual to various immunologic complications upon treatment, giving rise to the significant limitation of graft rejection with this method of treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • The immunological barriers, such as graft vs . host or required immunosuppression of the host, are of constant consideration in the therapeutic benefits and limitations of stem cell transplantation. (mdpi.com)