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  • Histological
  • Kloppel G, Solcia E, Longnecker DS et al (1998) Histological typing of tumors of the exocrine pancreas. (springer.com)
  • In: WHO, International Histological Classification of Tumors. (springer.com)
  • The naming issue to a certain extent reflects histological characteristics and development of the tumors, in which the different types of tissues are believed to either develop separately and join into a single mass (the "collision" theory), that an adenocarcinoma stimulates the stroma to create a tumor (the "composition" theory), or that the tumor is the result of a stem cell that differentiates into different cell types (the "combination" theory). (wikipedia.org)
  • Placing a given tumor into one of categories depends on well-defined histological features: size, lymphovascular invasion, mitotic counts, Ki-67 labelling index, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of metastases and whether they produce hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prediction of prognosis for prostatic adenocarcinoma by combined histological grading and clinical staging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prognosis of BAC depends upon the histological subtype and extent at presentation but are generally same as other NSCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the most recent revision (2004) of the World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification system for lung tumors ("WHO2004"), currently the most widely recognized typing scheme for pulmonary neoplasia, MCACL is considered a distinctive variant of adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, it is recommended that all multiphasic malignant lung tumors (i.e. those with more than one histological pattern) that are found to contain any proportion of SCLC cells should be classified as c-SCLC, and not as combined forms of any of the other histological variants present in the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as patients with tumors containing mixtures of histological subtypes are usually excluded from clinical trials, the properties of multiphasic tumors like c-SCLC are much less well understood than those of monophasic tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung cancer is an extremely heterogeneous family of malignant neoplasms, with well over 50 different histological variants recognized under the 4th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) typing system ("WHO-2004"), currently the most widely used lung cancer classification scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastases
  • Surgical treatment of liver metastases has been extensively studied and the prognosis has improved. (knowcancer.com)
  • Lung metastases has not been given similar attention but the prognosis of those operated may be good and equal that after liver surgery. (knowcancer.com)
  • Furthermore, due to the accumulation of lactic acid from Warburg's effect, the acidification of extracellular microenvironment favors the progression and metastases of tumor via upregulation of metallo-proteinase and cysteine proteinase activity and secretion [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is generally accepted that cancer of unknown primary site exists because the primary tumor is not identified due to clinical or technological inefficiencies, or because the primary tumor regresses or stays dormant after spreading the cancer cells that generate the metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 40% of these tumors are bilateral, when bilateral, metastases is often present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common staging system is the TNM (for tumors/nodes/metastases) system, from the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The interplay between the tumor and its microenvironment was part of Stephen Paget's 1889 "seed and soil" theory, in which he postulated that metastases of a particular type of cancer ("the seed") often metastasizes to certain sites ("the soil") based on the similarity of the original and secondary tumor sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • canine mammary tumors
  • Canine mammary tumors are common in middle-aged or older bitches. (akcchf.org)
  • The AKC Canine Health Foundation (CHF) and its donors are committed to improving the health of all dogs and are currently funding two studies aimed at new treatment strategies for canine mammary tumors. (akcchf.org)
  • Once validated for canine mammary tumors, the use of OCT could provide an accurate, intra-operative method to determine surgical margins. (akcchf.org)
  • Other advancements in the treatment of canine mammary tumors expand upon the discovery that tumor microenvironment helps regulate the biologic behavior of human breast cancer. (akcchf.org)
  • If this also occurs in dogs, veterinary medicine could have new biomarkers and treatment targets for canine mammary tumors. (akcchf.org)
  • Surgical removal is the gold standard treatment for canine mammary tumors. (akcchf.org)
  • The exact causes for the development of canine mammary tumors are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several hypotheses on the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of canine mammary tumors but a specific genetic mutation has not been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular carcinogenesis of canine mammary tumors are not completely understand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, newer studies showed that certain gene expression patterns are associated with malignant behaviour of canine mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms
  • The tumor can become large before a woman is aware of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The typical symptoms of an LMP tumor can include abdominal distension or pelvic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adolescents or children with ovarian tumors, symptoms can include severe abdominal pain, irritation of the peritoneum, or bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of sex cord-stromal tumors produce hormones that can affect the development of secondary sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other presenting symptoms described have included: flu-like syndrome with cough and fever, FA is an epithelial tumor whose cells and architecture resemble that of fetal lung tissues in the pseudoglandular stage of development (which occurs at about 10-16 weeks gestation in the human), with complex glandular structures and morules with cell nuclei that appear clear due to the accumulation of biotin. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the time symptoms occur, the cancer has often reached an advanced stage (see below) and may have metastasized (spread to other, perhaps distant, parts of the body), which is one of the main reasons for its relatively poor prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a poor prognosis because symptoms often develop late and it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic adenomas are a rare benign tumour of the liver, which may present with hepatomegaly or other symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • CHF Grant 2489: Tumor-permissive Collagen Signatures in Canine Mammary Gland Tumors: Development of Prognostic Markers and Targeted Therapies for Improved Outcomes will allow investigators to study naturally occurring mammary tumors in dogs adopted or placed in permanent foster care through the Penn Vet Shelter Canine Mammary Tumor Program . (akcchf.org)
  • This program provides complete and lifelong mammary tumor care for enrolled dogs and will also provide clinical outcome data related to the research findings. (akcchf.org)
  • Description - Vaginal and vulvar tumors are the second most common canine female reproductive tumor after those of the mammary gland. (wearethecure.org)
  • For mammary tumors in humans, see breast cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Emaciated female dog with a 9-month-old mammary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female dogs who are not spayed or who are spayed later than the first heat cycle are more likely to develop mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average age of dogs with mammary tumors is ten to eleven years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the most malignant type of canine mammary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, current data show that significant similarities and differences exist between canine and human mammary tumors at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Appearance and location of the tumor is enough to identify it as a mammary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because 40 to 50 percent of dog mammary tumors have estrogen receptors, spaying is recommended by many veterinarians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification
  • However, since different forms of malignant tumors generally exhibit diverse genetic, biological and clinical properties, including response to treatment, accurate classification of lung cancer cases are critical to ensuring that patients with lung cancer receive optimum management. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Noguchi classification system for small adenocarcinomas has received considerable attention, particularly in Japan, but has not been nearly as widely applied and recognized as the WHO system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme places neuroendocrine tumors into three main categories, which emphasize the tumor grade rather than the anatomical origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Investigators will explore additional collagen characteristics that predict clinical outcomes and examine exactly how they affect tumor behavior. (akcchf.org)
  • The behavior of MMMT overall is more related to the type and grade of the epithelium than the sarcoma, which suggests the sarcomal portion is an atypical "bystander" than primary driver of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)