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  • serum
  • After oral administration of progesterone as a micronized soft-gelatin capsule formulation, maximum serum concentrations were attained within 3 hours. (nih.gov)
  • creams
  • Natural progesterone therapy is available in creams and supplements. (articleinsider.com)
  • It's not all balanced hormones and better bone health -- continue reading to learn about the potential side effects from progesterone creams. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In these studies, different formulations of topical progesterone including creams and water-based gels (brand names Pro-Gest, Progestelle, and Pro-Femme, as well as compounded) were used, with different sample sizes (n = 6 to 40), at different dosages (15 to 80 mg per day), and for different durations of treatment (1.4 to 24 weeks). (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible explanation for the difference is that progesterone creams are more lipophilic and may have a preference for uptake into the fatty layer under the skin whereas alcohol-based gels are more water-soluble and may rapidly distribute into the microcirculation of the skin and then into the general circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • A study published in February 2016 in The Lancet stated the below, amongst other findings: OPPTIMUM strongly suggests that the efficacy of progesterone in improving outcomes is either non-existent or weak. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • High progesterone levels are believed to be partly responsible for symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), such as breast tenderness, feeling bloated and mood swings. (healthywomen.org)
  • When you skip a period, it could be because of failure to ovulate and subsequent low progesterone levels . (healthywomen.org)
  • One of several hypotheses for their causation is falling progesterone levels in the postpartum period. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • References reporting observational data on progesterone levels around delivery or therapeutic studies using progesterone were retrieved. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Progesterone administration decreases the circulatory levels of gonadotropins. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated levels of progesterone potently reduce the sodium-retaining activity of aldosterone, resulting in natriuresis and a reduction in extracellular fluid volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of progesterone and its analogues have many medical applications, both to address acute situations and to address the long-term decline of natural progesterone levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venous blood progesterone levels were assessed and reported in five of the studies and in all cases were low and found not to exceed 3.5 ng/mL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating progesterone levels were reported as less than 3.5 ng/mL in the first study, low and widely variable in the second study, and were not given in the third study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though based on limited data, these findings suggest that alcohol-based progesterone gels may yield relatively high levels of circulating progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in spite of very low levels of progesterone in circulation with these formulations, studies that have assessed levels of progesterone in saliva and/or capillary blood have found that they are dramatically elevated and in fact greatly supraphysiological. (wikipedia.org)
  • The curve of plasma progesterone in ovariectomised cows fitted with either PRID or CIDR show similar overall levels with a more obvious initial peak in the coil versus the t-shaped device. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH
  • In mammals, the mPRĪ± has been implied in progesterone regulation of uterine functions in humans and GnRH secretion in rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Based on in vitro research, ethisterone and norethisterone are about equipotent in their EC50 values for the androgen receptor (AR), whereas, conversely, norethisterone shows markedly increased potency relative to ethisterone in terms of its EC50 for the progesterone receptor (PR). (wikipedia.org)