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  • epithelium
  • These developing germ cells are surrounded and supported by a somatic epithelium composed of several different types of somatic follicle cells, which undergo multiple rounds of reorganization to determine the shape of the egg. (genetics.org)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell - the zygote - continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar finding in esophageal epithelium was observed, where overexpression of KLF4 resulted in increased inflammation that eventually lead to the development of esophageal squamous cell cancer in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • Both techniques produce cloned human embryos. (freerepublic.com)
  • embryonic stem cell research and the cloning of human embryos for research and destruction. (freerepublic.com)
  • Opponents have carefully explained why they oppose research using human embryos and support research that uses ethically unobjectionable sources, such as adult stem cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been feasible to create patient-matched embryonic stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the molecular makeup of these cells, including gene expression and epigenetic marks, was somewhere between that of a fibroblast and an ESC, and the cells failed to produce viable chimeras when injected into developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, usually the source of the ESC lines created for clinical needs is the internal cell mass of the blastocyst, separate blastomeres of embryos of the 8-cell stage of development, morula cells of later stages, and primary sex cells. (iliveok.com)
  • Even later, at the blastocyst stage, only 20-25% of human embryos consist of cells with a normal karyotype. (iliveok.com)
  • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature egg cells are produced by mitotic divisions, and these cells directly develop into embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • We assessed erythroid cell maturation by morphology on cytospin preparations and by flow cytometry. (confex.com)
  • We found an almost pure population of CD71+235+ iRBCs with erythroblast morphology by day 6 of culture, and progressive maturation to Band 3 high, alpha integrin low iRBCs that were smaller and had condensed nuclei that resemble erythroid cultures of primary CD34+ cells. (confex.com)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • However, most human iPSC-derived red blood cells (iRBCs) are developmentally primitive red cells that differ from donor-derived red cells with high levels of embryonic globin expression, are larger in size and fail to enucleate in culture. (confex.com)
  • For lines lacking high prevalence Rh antigens, we reprogrammed group O donor cells whose genotypes were heterozygous for RHD*DAU0/RHCE*ceMO and RHD*DOL/RHCE*ceBI , homozygous for RHD*DIIIa-CE(4-7)-D/RHCE*ceS, and homozygous for RHD/RHCE*ce733G , respectively. (confex.com)
  • Comparison of total Rh protein expression by flow cytometry on untargeted group O, D+ iRBCs compared to donor-derived RBCs demonstrated comparable cell surface Rh expression. (confex.com)
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization for the X and Y chromosomes and karyotype analysis of cultured osteoblasts confirmed the donor origin of these cells and excluded their generation by a fusion process. (pnas.org)
  • It is rare, however, that donor cell-derived leukemia (DCL) is a well recognized and vital entity in understanding the process of malignant transformation of hematopoietic cells ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The possible pathological mechanism of DCL is diverse, such as preleukemic changes in donor cells, oncogene transformation from residual leukemic cells, and impaired immune surveillance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial conjugation, a process that involves the transfer of DNA via a plasmid from a donor cell to a recombinant recipient cell during cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Yet, the molecular specifics of the regulatory transitions are incompletely understood - especially the formation of the multipotent cell population and the resolution of acinar precursor cells distinct from ductal and endocrine precursors. (biologists.org)
  • The growing suite of molecular-genetic and genomic tools described here provides a system to couple gene discovery to mechanistic dissections of gene function in the cell. (genetics.org)
  • Molecular analysis demonstrated a common retroviral integration site in clonogenic hematopoietic cells and osteoprogenitors from each of seven animals studied, establishing a shared clonal origin for these ostensibly independent cell types. (pnas.org)
  • The low HSC frequency in biological specimens as well as our inability to purify HSCs to homogeneity have challenged the molecular characterization of these cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Identification of TOV-21G as a RAP80 null tumor cell line will be very useful for the study of the molecular mechanism in DNA damage response. (jove.com)
  • At the molecular level, Pax5 fulfills its commitment function by repressing B cell lineage-inappropriate genes and activating B cell-specific genes, which results in the shutdown of inappropriate signaling systems and the simultaneous promotion of B lymphoid signal transduction ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the cellular and molecular bases for stem cell competition for niche occupancy are largely unknown. (genetics.org)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • Ruxolitinib protects skin stem cells and improves cutaneous manifestations of murine GVHD. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Takahashi et al report that while topical steroids worsen skin stem cell loss in a murine model of graft-versus-host disease, ruxolitinib protects skin stem cells, restores hair growth, and promotes wound healing. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Studies using ovalbumin-specific TCR-transduced murine hematopoietic progenitors resulted in functional ovalbumin-specific murine T cells in vivo ( 22 , 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • The resulting murine transgenic T cells were functional against murine tumor cell lines transduced with HLA-DR4, but it is unclear how this approach would work in human cells and on human tumors. (pnas.org)
  • We tested this prediction in a murine transplantation model by using gene-marked bone marrow cells and retroviral integration site-specific PCR analysis. (pnas.org)
  • Competitive repopulation of lethally irradiated murine hosts with EAR-2-transduced BM cells resulted in increased engraftment and increased colony formation in serial replating experiments. (springer.com)
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • The introduction of a TCR into peripheral T cells may lead to the generation of autoreactive clones because of transgenic TCR chain mispairing with endogenous TCR chains ( 18 ) that do not undergo proper negative selection ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The CLP enters the B lymphoid lineage by differentiating via the pre-pro-B cell stage to early pro-B cells, which undergo B cell lineage commitment followed by development along the B cell pathway ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Exiting the circulatory system at a distant anatomical site, cells undergo the reverse process of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), reacquiring their original non-mobile epithelial-like phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In flowering plants, cells of the gametophyte can undergo this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Furthermore, the genetically enhanced T cells underwent proper thymic selection, because we did not observe any responses against non-HLA-matched tumors, and no killing of any kind occurred in the absence of a human thymus. (pnas.org)
  • Cells in pre-malignant and malignant neoplasms (tumors) evolve by natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest ideas about neoplastic evolution come from Boveri who proposed that tumors originated in chromosomal abnormalities passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, myelin-forming cells are capable of bridging the repair site by establishing an environment permissive to axonal regeneration. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Moreover, TOV-21G cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation, which is due to the compromised DNA damage repair capacity in these cells. (jove.com)
  • Moreover, they can make this transition even in the absence of noticeable injuries and are capable of replenishing entire gastric units, in essence serving as quiescent "reserve" stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, T cells help maintain Mycobacterium within the granulomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Development and regeneration involves the coordination and organization of populations cells into a blastema, which is "a mound of stem cells from which regeneration begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Research has shown that CD34+ cells are relatively more in men than in women in the reproductive age among Spinal Cord Injury victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual reproduction, which involves the fusion of male and female reproductive cells (gametes) to create a zygote in a process called fertilization is, in contrast to asexual reproduction, the primary method of reproduction for the vast majority of macroscopic organisms, including almost all eukaryotes (which includes animals and plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • All follicle cells in each ovariole are derived from two FSCs that reside in separate niches, one on each side of the germarium, which is the most anterior structure of the ovariole ( Margolis and Spradling 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • cytokines
  • Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides, and cytokines that induce a cellular physiological response to regenerate from the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • exhibit
  • Cell-fate determination is predicted to exhibit certain dynamics, such as attractor-convergence (the attractor can be an equilibrium point, limit cycle or strange attractor) or oscillatory. (wikipedia.org)