Loading...
  • kinetics
  • Using the chemical kinetics based on ozone and ˙OH rate constants ( i.e. , compound-specific information) and exposures ( i.e. , water matrix-specific information), a generalized prediction of the abatement efficiency of various micropollutants in varying water quality appears to be possible. (rsc.org)
  • Reaction rule-based models in combination with the chemical kinetics information will enable the prediction of transformation product evolution during ozonation. (rsc.org)
  • Continuous
  • Continuous changes in the landscape of ores have shifted the focus of mining chemical providers towards innovations in the technology that can ensure economical treatment of ores. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Critical to achieving the fast catalytic rate necessary for continuous evolution, development of this enzyme entailed the addition and evolutionary maturation of a 35-nucleotide accessory domain and the application of highly stringent selection pressure, with reaction times as short as 15 ms. Once established, continuous evolution was carried out for 80 successive transfers, maintaining the population against an overall dilution of 10 207 -fold. (pnas.org)
  • Another line of investigation beginning with the class I ligase resulted in the establishment of a system for the continuous in vitro evolution of ribozymes ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Scheme for continuous evolution of ligase ribozymes. (pnas.org)
  • Continuous evolution is the most efficient and powerful method for evolving functional molecules in vitro , but thus far has only been applied to descendants of the class I ligase. (pnas.org)
  • organisms
  • Oxygen was largely absent during the first few billion years of evolution on Earth, and many organisms today still do not need this element to survive. (academicroom.com)
  • Many secondary metabolites are cytotoxic and have been selected and optimized through evolution for use as "chemical warfare" agents against prey, predators, and competing organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecologically evolved products are different from environmentally-produced chemicals in that the ecological product infers some sort of interaction is taking place between the plants that are producing them and other organisms. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Whereas environmentally-produced products involve organism-environment interactions only (or at least for the most part depending upon secondary benefits that evolve), without concern for other organisms, neighbors, competitors, etc. , ecologically important chemicals exist because of these interorganismal relationships that exist within the given environmental setting. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Intermediates
  • The absence of fossil evidence for intermediary stages between major transitions in organic design, indeed our inability, even in our imagination, to construct functional intermediates in many cases, has been a persistent and nagging problem for gradualistic accounts of evolution. (answersingenesis.org)
  • evolve
  • The heterogeneous reactions of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate ( BES ) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reaction products evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. (rsc.org)
  • molecules
  • Darwinian evolution has been applied to populations of RNA molecules in the laboratory to generate RNA enzymes (ribozymes) that catalyze a variety of reactions ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could play important roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity. (rsc.org)
  • proteins
  • Scientists in Singapore have developed a bacterial protein nanoparticle that correctly folds recombinant proteins, increases functional expression yields up to 100-fold, and shields the internalized proteins from damage by heat, chemicals, and proteolysis. (genengnews.com)
  • The exoshells in addition protected the proteins against heat and chemical denaturing agents, including including high-concentration trypsin, organic solvents, and urea. (genengnews.com)
  • By using 23 copies of a single thermostable subunit to form a protective shell around internalized proteins, we report that tES can improve expression, in vitro folding, and product stabilization," they conclude. (genengnews.com)
  • This mimics the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary method of classifying products, and allows us to avoid the possible conclusion these terms could have due to the historical association of the term "secondary products" to all non-primary products, and the association of terms tertiary and quaternary to structural forms in proteins. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • In nature, mussel secrets adhesive proteins and efficiently adheres to stone and other inorganic surfaces and even to man-made products such as metal and plastic (e.g. (tu-berlin.de)
  • During this evolution, the protein translation, which first operated with few amino acids and produced the statistical proteins, developed into a highly accurate machine capable of producing very specific proteins, based on the 20 canonical amino acids. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Mutations
  • After five rounds of evolution with screening of only 5500 clones, we obtained two strongly diverged haloalkane dehalogenase variants that give access to (R)-epichlorohydrin with 90 % ee and to (S)-epichlorohydrin with 97 % ee, containing 13 and 17 mutations, respectively, around their active sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • protein
  • Methods for stabilizing protein products, including chemical cross-linking, rational mutagenesis, and directed evolution approaches, have also been applied both for basic and industrial applications. (genengnews.com)
  • In contrast with existing approaches, Dr. Drum's team aimed to develop a single technology that could both improve recombinant protein expression and product stabilization. (genengnews.com)
  • trace
  • Backscattered electron images and chemical analysis (major and trace elements and Sr isotopes) of sequential experimental products allow us to identify the textural and chemical evolution of carbonated products during the assimilation process. (springer.com)
  • Subsequent decades of research have conclusively shown that Carson was excessively alarmist about the environmental and health effects of trace exposures to man-made chemicals. (scienceblogs.com)
  • rounds
  • We used pair-wise site-saturation mutagenesis (SSM) of all 16 noncatalytic active-site residues during the initial two rounds of evolution. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This effort involved several structural modifications of the class I ligase, including the addition of a large random-sequence accessory domain, followed by 24 rounds of stepwise evolution and extensive screening of cloned individuals. (pnas.org)
  • Laboratory
  • The Group also has expertise in the co-evolution of host and pathogens in humans, wildlife and laboratory model systems ( Nichols , Knell and Eizaguirre ), and we are developing new mathematical methods to identify sources of infection in disease outbreaks ( Le Comber ). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • type
  • QSAR-type correlations based on Hammett coefficients or quantum chemical energy calculations or (semi)empirical models have been developed for predicting the ozone and ˙OH rate constants and exposures, respectively. (rsc.org)
  • Type in Product Names, Product Numbers, or CAS Numbers to see suggestions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The segments considered for this report are based on product type, mineral type, application, and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • classes
  • Of the many ribozymes that have been obtained by in vitro evolution, six different classes catalyze the RNA-templated joining of an oligonucleotide 3′-hydroxyl and an oligonucleotide 5′-triphosphate, forming a 3′,5′-phosphodiester and releasing inorganic pyrophosphate ( 4 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • These are three classes of chemicals that are very basic to the plant world. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • research
  • The study, conducted by research chemists from California and North Carolina, suggests that babies are being exposed to at least eight different flame-retarding chemicals in an array of products sold nationwide. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Research on lab animals has shown some of the chemicals cause cancerous tumors and damage developing brain cells , and some can alter hormones essential to reproductive and neurological development. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The research team sampled 101 pieces of polyurethane foam removed from cushions in car seats, changing table pads, sleep positioners, portable crib mattresses, nursing pillows, baby carriers, high chairs and a few other products. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Company
  • The global market for mining chemicals is dominated by large players such as AkzoNobel N.V. (The Netherlends), BASF SE (Germany), Clariant International Ltd. (Switzerland), Cytec Industries Inc. (U.S.), Kemira OYJ (Finland), The Dow Chemical Company (U.S.), Huntsman International LLC (U.S.), Orica Limited. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • different
  • One item contained three different flame retardants, and some products had levels of the chemicals that made up as much as 12.5 percent of the foam's weight, according to the study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Tannins are a polymerized phenolic products (the flavo-tannins are derived from a completely different pathway and are not included in this discussion). (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • various
  • The total market size of mining chemicals was calculated based on the shares of the various mining chemicals and products derived. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • We are sure that this book will have a strong impact, considering on the one hand the revival of interest in natural products in the age of multi-resistant human and plant pathogens, and on the other hand the emphasis on bio-economy in various areas of life sciences and biotechnology. (springer.com)
  • common
  • Birnbaum said the most common chemical found in the baby products -- known as chlorinated Tris -- mutates DNA and may be carcinogenic. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This is to provide further insight into the many simple and common ingredients that may still contain meat products in them without being aware of it. (vedicbooks.net)
  • Manufacturers
  • However, some manufacturers use a filling other than polyurethane foam, such as polyester, which can pass the flammability standard without the chemicals. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The key objective of the global mining chemicals report is to provide companies with a summary of the latest trends and lucrative business expansion opportunities for mining chemicals manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • rate
  • Because of the superior catalytic rate of this ribozyme, it has been chosen as the starting point for several subsequent in vitro evolution experiments. (pnas.org)
  • large
  • However, isolation of such bio-glues from natural sources is expensive, inefficient, and it is not possible to produce large amounts of a homogeneous product by imitating post-translational modification machineries. (tu-berlin.de)
  • demand
  • Sure there had been a notable medical and scientific opposition to the mass proliferation of the products, but public demand and corporation profits far outweighed and eventually silenced such resistant voices. (author-me.com)