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  • initiation
  • Occasionally, in weak stm alleles, adventitious shoots will form but the shoots progressively lose their meristem indicating that STM is required for both the initiation and maintenance of SAMs. (iastate.edu)
  • Leaf formation begins with the selection of a group of founder cells in the so-called peripheral zone at the flank of the meristem, followed by the initiation of local growth and finally morphogenesis of the resulting bulge into a differentiated leaf. (plantcell.org)
  • Whereas the mechanisms controlling the switch between meristem propagation and leaf initiation are being identified by genetic and molecular analyses, the radial positioning of leaves, known as phyllotaxis, remains poorly understood. (plantcell.org)
  • Whereas genetic analyses provide us with an ever more detailed description of meristem maintenance and propagation, the molecular nature of the mechanisms that trigger leaf initiation and ensure that leaves form at the proper angles relative to each other remains to be established. (plantcell.org)
  • mutations
  • Most cultivated tomatoes produce inflorescences with a few flowers arranged in a zigzag branching pattern ( Fig. 1 A - E ), but we previously showed that variants with highly branched inflorescences bearing hundreds of flowers arose more than a century ago due to loss-of-function mutations in a homeobox transcription factor encoded by the COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE ( S ) gene ( Fig. 1 G ) ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mutations of spike architecture in tetraploid wheat ( Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 28, AABB) can produce branched spikes or supernumerary spikelets. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mutations of these loci delay the floral transition to various degrees, prolonging vegetative growth to produce a late flowering phenotype. (plantphysiol.org)
  • embryo
  • This meristem consists of a pool of stem cells and their close descendants, is organized during embryogenesis, and arrests as the embryo enters dormancy, becoming protected within the seed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Sexual reproduction Development of new plants by the processes of meiosis and fertilization in the flower to produce a viable embryo in a seed. (yumpu.com)
  • In contrast to animals, the basic body plan of plants develops largely postembryonically and is directed by two primary meristems located on opposite ends of a bipolar embryo ( J├╝rgens, 2001 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • elongate
  • Stem the main axis of a plant, has a terminal bud that allows the stem to elongate and produce new leaves. (powershow.com)
  • They are too low for mowing blades and biting teeth of grazing animals until stems elongate, pushing the meristem cells upward. (oregonstate.edu)
  • developmental
  • Developmental studies focus on the activity and fate of meristems throughout the plant, and illustrate how adult morphology arises. (scielo.org.ar)
  • iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals the lateral meristem developmental mechanism for branched spike development in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The genetic basis of RSs and FRSs has been analyzed, but little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms of the lateral meristem. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Secondary
  • Secondary growth is tissue derived from zones other than the meristem, such as cambial zones. (iastate.edu)
  • Most plants produce one or more orders of lateral root branches that vary in thickness, branching patterns, growth rates, capacity for secondary growth, lifespan, structural features, etc. (mycorrhizas.info)
  • Although no new organs are produced by these lateral meristems, the secondary plant body may constitute the bulk of the plant, for example a tree's trunk, branches and roots. (edu.au)
  • morphology
  • Surprisingly, we find thousands of age-dependent expression changes, even when there is little change in meristem morphology. (pnas.org)
  • Roots
  • As soon a plant sprouts it makes roots then try to producing more roots to acquire water/nutes. (icmag.com)
  • There are differences between plant species in the proportion of relatively fine or coarse roots they produce. (mycorrhizas.info)
  • However, plants with extended lifespans have additional meristem layers called cambium which develop within roots and stems, and lead to an increase in girth along the plant's longitudinal axis (see Section 7.2). (edu.au)
  • cork cambium produces protective tissue, replacing the functions of epidermis in stems, and cortex and epidermis in roots. (edu.au)
  • fate
  • Our systems genetics approach reveals that the program for inflorescence branching is initiated surprisingly early during meristem maturation and that evolutionary diversity in inflorescence architecture is modulated by heterochronic shifts in the acquisition of floral fate. (pnas.org)
  • cell divisions
  • The corpus is the mass of cells in the central part of the meristem and cell divisions occur in all planes. (iastate.edu)
  • Meristems are restricted to localised regions in higher plants, but in algae cell divisions are not always organised this way. (edu.au)
  • Unicellular organisms undergo divisions to produce a new biological entity capable of further cell divisions and multicellular algae often have diffuse meristems. (edu.au)
  • primary
  • Each rRNA gene can be transcribed within the nucleolus by RNA polymerase I to produce a primary transcript that is processed to form the 18S, 5.8S, and 25-27S rRNAs (the size depends on species). (pnas.org)
  • These observations suggest that axillary meristems are formed from detached parts of the primary SAM. (plantphysiol.org)
  • After the primary SAM is transformed into the reproductive phase, that is, an inflorescence meristem, differentiated cells in the leaf axils undergo dedifferentiation and regain meristematic potential. (plantphysiol.org)
  • structures
  • The male gametes , produced by reproductive structures called antheridia, are free-swimming sperm cells that need water to transport them to the female gametes, which are enclosed within structures called archegonia. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We followed the development of structures arising from the axillary meristem from juvenile to adult phase in P. edulis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is also some evidence of Passiflora tendrils producing flower structures, but these are limited to book graphical illustrations and old descriptions of these plants [ 10 - 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanism
  • Because most genetic mistakes are generated during mitosis, this is probably a mechanism to minimize the occurrence of genetic mistakes in the permanent cell population of the meristem. (iastate.edu)