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  • isotopes
  • Fuel and isotopes were fed into the channels in the front of the reactor, the "charge face", and spent fuel was then pushed all the way through the core and out of the back-the "discharge face"-into a water duct for initial cooling prior to retrieval and processing to extract the plutonium. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Both the target material and some of the product isotopes are listed below. (thefullwiki.org)
  • mitigation
  • The tasks of disaster response technical workers in Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP after the tsunami were to restore the cooling of reactors and the fuel pools, containment and treatment of water contaminated by radioactive materials, and mitigation of radioactive materials emission in the environment eventually achieving the cold shutdown of the NPP. (bmj.com)
  • leaks
  • Fisheries minister Michihiko Kano said later in the day that the government intends to toughen inspections of marine products in Ibaraki and increase the number of inspections off Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, in light of the continuing leaks of radioactive materials into the Pacific Ocean from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. (blogspot.com)
  • biological
  • maintain a record of the basis for authorizing the release of an individual, for 3 years after the date of release, if the total effective dose equivalent is calculated (1) using the retained activity rather than the activity administered, (2) using an occupancy factor less than 0.25 at 1 meter, (3) using the biological or effective half-life, or (4) considering the shielding by tissue. (orau.org)
  • Although synthetic biology is chiefly an engineering discipline, the ability to design and construct simplified biological systems offers life scientists a useful way to test their understanding of the complex functional networks of genes and biomolecules that mediate life processes [ 2 , 3 ]. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • Biological hazards include microbial pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. (wisegeek.com)
  • During World War II, anthrax spores were released on Gruinard Island - a small island off the northwest coast of Scotland - in an experiment to monitor the effects of a potential biological weapon. (wisegeek.com)
  • radioactivity
  • Although it is true that alpha radiation, the primary radiation in early fallout, can be stopped by paper, when this same radioactivity is released inside the body it does about 20 times the cellular damage as the equivalent dose of X-ray. (dianuke.org)
  • Studies performed on the Marcellus shale through core samples and analysis of the process show that the amount of radioactivity is 20 times higher than background and would be concentrated through the process. (blogspot.com)
  • In the 1980s, at other gas drill sites, higher concentrations of radioactivity presented concerns about site workers and the general public when dealing with disposal and by-products from the process. (blogspot.com)
  • adversely
  • In addition, the letter mentioned that computer-controlled design, production, or quality control processes could be adversely affected. (orau.org)
  • uranium
  • HPP active operations apparently included processing of uranium materials sent to the diffusion plants, but, at some time, the HPP began recycling /reprocessing of barrier materials already exposed to radiation sent from the plants to Huntington for the separation of uranium, plutonium and nickel. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Although the assumptions by NIOSH lower the enriched materials at Huntington to a 2% median, detailed documents have described the weapons grade conversion of Uranium to yellowcake (90%) enrichment. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Before enrichment, yellowcake is converted to a volatile material called "hex" (uranium hexa fluoride ) , according to nearcriticalwill.org. (fluoridealert.org)
  • http://ieer.org/resource/factsheets/uranium-its-uses-and-hazards/#note-1… (Footnote 11). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Since depleted uranium contains at least three times less uranium-235 than natural uranium, it is weakly radioactive and an external radiation dose from depleted uranium is about 60% of that from the same mass of uranium with a natural isotopic ratio. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Due to its high density the main uses of depleted uranium include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shields in medical radiation therapy machines and containers for the transport of radioactive materials. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Depleted uranium is produced as a byproduct during the process of forming enriched uranium from natural uranium. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • DU created by enrichment can be distinguished from DU created in a reactor by the percentage of uranium-236,[ 6 ] produced by neutron capture from uranium-235 in nuclear reactors, present in the material. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • When internal radioactive tracers are used in medicine they have short half lives (both biologically and physically) and are not similar to plutonium, uranium or thorium or other debris found in nuclear disasters. (dianuke.org)
  • involve
  • Frequently, conditions involve a combination of these hazards. (osha.gov)
  • In addition to target science, there are challenges for IFE embedded in what is usually labeled "technology" (e.g., chambers): These challenges involve a broad range of scientific disciplines, including nuclear and atomic physics, materials and surface science, and many aspects of engineering science. (nap.edu)
  • Sometimes the decontamination process will involve the physical removal of the material of concern, while in others it may be neutralized or rendered harmless by chemical means. (wisegeek.com)
  • humans
  • Usually the material will pose a direct threat to humans, but in some cases the threat may be indirect or economic - for example, insect pests or diseases of plants or animals. (wisegeek.com)
  • plutonium
  • This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-06-164T entitled 'Securing U.S. Nuclear Materials: Poor Planning Has Complicated DOE's Plutonium Consolidation Efforts' which was released on October 7, 2005. (gao.gov)
  • First, DOE has not completed a plan to process the plutonium into a form for permanent disposition, as required by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002. (gao.gov)
  • pipes
  • By 2010, whistleblowers and the federal safety board had raised concerns over the risks of explosions from the buildup of hydrogen gas in the pipes and the potential for radioactive releases from unintended nuclear chain reactions, known as criticality hazards. (nuclear-news.net)
  • Exposures
  • The building materials traditionally used in great quantities in Germany, are generally not the cause for enhanced radiation exposures due to radon in buildings. (bfs.de)
  • However
  • However, there were four major hazards identified: radiation, heat, stress and machine operation and manual handling. (bmj.com)
  • however, the funder and the College require IRB approval prior to the release of funds. (bowdoin.edu)
  • By the same token, however, little of that gas will be released if one simply drills a well into the shale. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • However, in most instances the proportion of radon from building materials and natural stone in homes is small compared to the amount of radon emitted from soil. (bfs.de)
  • However, the material is prone to corrosion and small particles are pyrophoric . (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Health
  • 3 To achieve these objectives, radiation levels at the site were monitored to avoid any additional release of radioactive materials, and clean-up of rubble was implemented while ensuring the safety and health of workers. (bmj.com)
  • the number of children and grandchildren with cancer in their bones, with leukemia in their blood, or with poison in their lungs might seem statistically small to some, in comparison with natural health hazards, but this is not a natural health hazard--and it is not a statistical issue. (ratical.org)
  • They had rated thirty-two thousand as severe health hazards, and this was number one on the list. (ratical.org)
  • natural
  • The process of extraction of natural gas from black shale has been around a long time, but public concern has increased in recent years. (blogspot.com)
  • Marcellus is a black shale with a detectable radioactive signature, which has become a major natural gas supplier, referred to as a super gas field. (blogspot.com)
  • What kind of radiation is a danger, when releasing natural gas through the hydraulic fracturing process? (blogspot.com)
  • workers
  • The aim of this paper is to describe the greatly increased risk from hazards that disaster response technical workers faced because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP disaster. (bmj.com)
  • The "hex" process has been documented at Portsmouth, including an injury related accident where one or more workers were exposed. (fluoridealert.org)
  • higher
  • many of the later cycles had to be repeated, and higher and higher temperatures were required to start the annealing process. (thefullwiki.org)
  • compliance
  • NRC must establish an annual certification process for compliance with these standards. (osha.gov)
  • NRC will assume regulatory oversight responsibility with respect to USEC's compliance with the Part 76 standards after NRC completes the first compliance certification process. (osha.gov)
  • and 3) check design, production, and quality control processes to ensure year 2000 compliance. (orau.org)