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  • genes
  • Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • plants
  • Adventitious root (AR) formation is a developmental process which on the one hand reflects the great plasticity of plants to adjust to stressful environmental conditions and to regenerate plant structures on the same individual independent of sexual reproduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • degradation
  • Aremu AO, Masondo NA, Sunmonu TO, Kulkarni MG, Zatloukal M, Spichal L, Doležal K, Van Staden J (2014) A novel inhibitor of cytokinin degradation (INCYDE) influences the biochemical parameters and photosynthetic apparatus in NaCl-stressed tomato plants. (springer.com)
  • Signaling
  • Müller and Sheen (p. 68) describe how plants use a two-component signaling mechanism, well known from prokaryotic organisms, to respond to cytokinin, a hormone derived from adenine. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results provided cell-specific visual markers of where spaceflight-related auxin and cytokinin signaling occur, and how these signals may help to guide root growth in an environment without gravity. (nasa.gov)
  • Combined results indicate that common molecular mechanisms associated with dormancy transitions of buds and seeds involve processes associated with ABA and auxin signaling and transport, cell cycle, and AP2/ERF transcription factors or their up-stream regulators. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to auxin signaling, cytokinin signaling is absent in the embryo sac and instead occurs adjacent to but outside of the antipodal cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The CRE1/AHK4 cytokinin receptor is an important component of plants' hormone signaling systems, and compounds that can alter its activity have potential utility for studying the receptor's functions and/or developing new plant growth regulators. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plants
  • Plants with reduced cytokinin content are expected to be more informative, because the lack of cytokinin might cause a loss-of-function phenotype for physiological and developmental traits in which cytokinins are limiting. (plantcell.org)
  • Cytokinins, used during early bloom, can greatly aid in setting up a better plant structure (short squat plants with close internodes), and used thereafter can stimulate cell division (growth rates) and as a result increase yields. (icmag.com)
  • Trans -isomers of cytokinins (CK) are thought to predominate and have greater biological activity than corresponding cis -isomers in higher plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Adventitious root (AR) formation is a developmental process which on the one hand reflects the great plasticity of plants to adjust to stressful environmental conditions and to regenerate plant structures on the same individual independent of sexual reproduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • TDZ thus increases the lifetime of cytokinins and their effects in plants. (springer.com)
  • The impact of pathogen-derived cytokinins on the total cytokinin content of infected tissue and host gene expression was minimal in wild type plants. (springer.com)
  • In the leaves of three-week-old plants with actively functioning chloroplasts, treatment with cytokinin mainly stimulated expression of the construct P AHK3 -GUS. (deepdyve.com)
  • antagonist
  • Furthermore, 6,7-OMeBOAA inhibits completely shoot production and can therefore be regarded as an auxin antagonist in these cytokinin-mediated processes. (mendeley.com)
  • A high throughput method was developed for screening compounds with agonist or antagonist properties toward the CRE1/AHK4 cytokinin receptor in a single experiment using the Nanodrop II liquid handling system and 384-well plates. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteins
  • Different AtCKX-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were localized to the vacuoles or the endoplasmic reticulum and possibly to the extracellular space, indicating that subcellular compartmentation plays an important role in cytokinin biology. (plantcell.org)
  • A potentially more convenient and informative approach is to use an assay based directly on interactions between the tested compounds and proteins of interest (e.g., a cytokinin receptor, or reporter acting downstream of a targeted receptor) in a less complex system. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecular
  • Kieber, PhD, professor and associate chair of biology at UNC Chapel Hill, and Eric Schaller, PhD, professor of biological sciences and in the Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program at Dartmouth College, she is applying her expertise in plant biology, bioinformatics and analytical software development to understand the role cytokinins play in the growth and development of rice. (transforming-science.com)
  • novel
  • Arima Y, Oshima K, Shudo K (1995) Evolution of a novel urea-type cytokinin: horticultural uses of forchlorofenuron. (springer.com)
  • growth
  • We show that the increased growth of the primary root is linked to an enhanced meristematic cell number, suggesting that cytokinins control the exit of cells from the root meristem. (plantcell.org)
  • The effect of weightlessness on distribution of cytokinin in roots suggests that some of the spaceflight-induced features of root growth may be cytokinin-related. (nasa.gov)
  • When a plant is under stress at any given stage of growth, it will produce less cytokinin growth hormones. (icmag.com)
  • content
  • The content of cytokinins (Ck, zeatin, and zeatin riboside) in various plant organs was determined by the immunoenzyme method, and GA activity was measured in bioassay with dwarf pea. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, exogenous auxin partly inhibited the tuber initiation, and exogenous cytokinin reduced the average tuber weight in most transformants at high sucrose content. (springer.com)
  • The elevated auxin level in tubers of the transformants was accompanied with a decrease in content of cytokinin bases and their ribosides in tubers and most shoots. (springer.com)
  • vivo
  • Although these gain-of-function experiments have yielded significant information about processes that can be influenced by cytokinins, they might not always reflect true in vivo functions. (plantcell.org)
  • We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies. (springer.com)
  • potato
  • Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. (springer.com)
  • Cells
  • While giant cells are symplastically isolated and obtain assimilates by transporter-mediated processes syncytia are massively connected to the phloem by plasmodesmata. (frontiersin.org)
  • We applied immunohistochemistry to identify the cells within the developing phloem that responded to auxin and cytokinin. (frontiersin.org)
  • role
  • Among all purification technologies based on physicochemical processes, sorption has played an important role. (nusl.cz)