###### fully probabilistic

- citation needed] As an example of fully probabilistic forecasts, recently, distribution forecasts of rainfall amounts by purely statistical methods have been developed whose performance is competitive with hybrid EPS[clarification needed]/statistical rainfall forecasts of daily rainfall amounts. (wikipedia.org)
- In theoretical computer science, probabilistic bisimulation is an extension of the concept of bisimulation for fully probabilistic transition systems first described by K.G. Larsen and A. Skou. (wikipedia.org)
- This type of system is fully probabilistic, there is no other indeterminacy. (wikipedia.org)
- Fully probabilistic design is a design method in which the goals of the control are expressed in the probability distribution instead of usual loss functions and constrains. (wikipedia.org)

###### experimental probabilistic snowfall products

- The purpose of these experimental probabilistic snowfall products is to provide customers and partners a range of snowfall possibilities, in complement to existing NWS deterministic snowfall graphics, to better communicate forecast uncertainties during winter weather events. (weather.gov)

###### probabilities

- While there is a certain lose of the meaning of probabilities in the reactive model, testing with probabilistic tests proves to be too strong, because it does not relate behavior expressions which we expect to be equivalent. (psu.edu)
- Pearl argues that the entire enterprise of probabilistic causation has been misguided from the very beginning, because the central notion that causes "raise the probabilities" of their effects cannot be expressed in the language of probability theory. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, formulating the notion of "probability raising" within the calculus of do-operators resolves the difficulties that probabilistic causation has encountered in the past half-century, among them the infamous Simpson's paradox, and clarifies precisely what relationships exist between probabilities and causation. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast to single-valued forecasts (such as forecasting that the maximum temperature at given site on a given day will be 23 degrees Celsius, or that the result in a given football match will be a no-score draw), probabilistic forecasts assign a probability to each of a number of different outcomes, and the complete set of probabilities represents a probability forecast. (wikipedia.org)
- A probabilistic database is an uncertain database in which the possible worlds have associated probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
- The term "probabilistic logic" was first used in a paper by Nils Nilsson published in 1986, where the truth values of sentences are probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
- The proposed semantical generalization induces a probabilistic logical entailment, which reduces to ordinary logical entailment when the probabilities of all sentences are either 0 or 1. (wikipedia.org)
- vec {d}}_{j})}}} There are some limitations to this framework that need to be addressed by further development: There is no accurate estimate for the first run probabilities Index terms are not weighted Terms are assumed mutually independent To address these and other concerns there are some developed models from the probabilistic relevance framework. (wikipedia.org)

###### Markov

- This chapter introduces probabilistic graphical models and explain their use for modelling probabilistic relationships between variables in the context of optimisation with EDAs.We focus on Markov networksmodels and review different algorithms used to learn and sample Markov networks. (springer.com)
- Other probabilistic graphical models are also reviewed and their differences with Markov networks are analysed. (springer.com)
- Thus, the probabilistic automaton generalizes the concept of a Markov chain or subshift of finite type. (wikipedia.org)
- Very roughly, they can be categorized into two different classes: those logics that attempt to make a probabilistic extension to logical entailment, such as Markov logic networks, and those that attempt to address the problems of uncertainty and lack of evidence (evidentiary logics). (wikipedia.org)
- When applied to Markov chains, probabilistic bisimulation is the same concept as lumpability. (wikipedia.org)

###### deterministic

- In this dual approach, scientists accept both deterministic and probabilistic causation in their terminology. (wikipedia.org)
- Formally, the definition of a probabilistic automaton does not require the mechanics of the non-deterministic automaton, which may be dispensed with. (wikipedia.org)
- An intuitive approach to converting a deterministic encryption scheme into a probabilistic one is to simply pad the plaintext with a random string before encrypting with the deterministic algorithm. (wikipedia.org)

###### discrete

- In econometrics, probabilistic classification in general is called discrete choice. (wikipedia.org)

###### Semantic Web

- A probabilistic extension of \(\mathcal{SHOQ}({\bf D})\) for probabilistic ontologies in the semantic web. (springer.com)

###### Thus

- Thus, probabilistic design is a tool that is mostly used in areas that are concerned with quality and reliability. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, probabilistic forecasting is a type of probabilistic classification. (wikipedia.org)
- The name "probabilistic argumentation" has been used to refer to a particular theory of reasoning that encompasses uncertainty and ignorance, combining probability theory and deductive logic, and thus consisting in a probabilistic logic (Haenni, Kohlas & Lehmann 2000). (wikipedia.org)

###### classification

- Probabilistic classifiers provide classification that can be useful in its own right or when combining classifiers into ensembles. (wikipedia.org)
- Some classification models, such as naive Bayes, logistic regression and multilayer perceptrons (when trained under an appropriate loss function) are naturally probabilistic. (wikipedia.org)
- Not all classification models are naturally probabilistic, and some that are, notably naive Bayes classifiers, decision trees and boosting methods, produce distorted class probability distributions. (wikipedia.org)
- Commonly used loss functions for probabilistic classification include log loss and the mean squared error between the predicted and the true probability distributions. (wikipedia.org)
- A probabilistic neural network (PNN) is a feedforward neural network, which is widely used in classification and pattern recognition problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Probabilistic Neural Networks in Solving Different Pattern Classification Problems. (wikipedia.org)

###### Semantics

- Probabilistic semantics extends the current semantic technology to overcome that limitation. (wikipedia.org)
- However, due to their probabilistic approach, probabilistic semantics are able to describe only those uncertainties that can be quantified, namely they cannot model conceptual uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)

###### Computation

- K. G. Larsen and A. Skou and appeared in the article Bisimulation through Probabilistic Testing, published in Information and Computation, vol 94, pages 1-28, 1991 Probabilistic Noninterference through Weak Probabilistic Bisimulation by Geoffrey Smith Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop (CSFW'03) 1063-6900/03 Kemeny, John G. (wikipedia.org)
- Probabilistic Computation Tree Logic (PCTL) is an extension of computation tree logic (CTL) which allows for probabilistic quantification of described properties. (wikipedia.org)

###### probability theory

- This book explores Probabilistic Cellular Automata (PCA) from the perspectives of statistical mechanics, probability theory, computational biology and computer science. (springer.com)
- Probabilistic causation designates a group of philosophical theories that aim to characterize the relationship between cause and effect using the tools of probability theory. (wikipedia.org)
- The aim of a probabilistic logic (also probability logic and probabilistic reasoning) is to combine the capacity of probability theory to handle uncertainty with the capacity of deductive logic to exploit structure of formal argument. (wikipedia.org)

###### statistical

- Data quality and completeness are key issues in many community-generated data stores, like LOD, which motivates probabilistic and statistical approaches to data representation, reasoning and querying. (springer.com)

###### uncertainty

- In this paper we address the issue from the perspective of probabilistic databases, which account for uncertainty in the data via a probability distribution over all database instances. (springer.com)

###### naturally

- Our key insight is that in addition to the usual notions of control dependence and data dependence that are used to slice non-probabilistic programs, a new kind of dependence called observe dependence arises naturally due to observe statements in probabilistic programs. (microsoft.com)
- Probabilistic bisimulation extends naturally to weighted bisimulation. (wikipedia.org)

###### Suciu

- Nilesh N. Dalvi, Dan Suciu: Efficient query evaluation on probabilistic databases. (wikipedia.org)

###### uncertain

- I extend Machina and Schmeidler's (1992) model of probabilistic sophistication to unbounded uncertain prospects (acts) and derive risk preferences over the induced probability distributions (lotteries) with unbounded support. (repec.org)
- Just as in courtroom reasoning, the goal of employing uncertain inference is to gather evidence to strengthen the confidence of a proposition, as opposed to performing some sort of probabilistic entailment. (wikipedia.org)

###### Binary

- In this paper we revisit archetypal analysis from the basic principles, and propose a probabilistic framework that accommodates other observation types such as integers, binary, and probability vectors. (springer.com)
- Binary probabilistic classifiers are also called binomial regression models in statistics. (wikipedia.org)

###### algorithms

- The term "probabilistic encryption" is typically used in reference to public key encryption algorithms, however various symmetric key encryption algorithms achieve a similar property (e.g., block ciphers when used in a chaining mode such as CBC). (wikipedia.org)
- More efficient probabilistic encryption algorithms include Elgamal, Paillier, and various constructions under the random oracle model, including OAEP. (wikipedia.org)

###### approach

- When using a probabilistic approach to design, the designer no longer thinks of each variable as a single value or number. (wikipedia.org)
- This second approach is sometimes referred to as robustification, parameter design or design for six sigma Essentially, probabilistic design focuses upon the prediction of the effects of random variability. (wikipedia.org)

###### framework

- The aim of this position paper is (1) to propose a vocabulary for representing probabilistic knowledge in RDF, and (2) to present a framework for probability calculation using RDF and Bayesian network. (w3.org)
- The probabilistic relevance model was devised by Robertson and Jones as a framework for probabilistic models to come. (wikipedia.org)

###### difficulty

- A difficulty with probabilistic logics is that they tend to multiply the computational complexities of their probabilistic and logical components. (wikipedia.org)

###### prediction

- Other variants of ensemble forecasting systems that have no immediate probabilistic interpretation include those that assemble the forecasts produced by different numerical weather prediction systems. (wikipedia.org)
- Probabilistic Neural Networks to the Class Prediction of Leukemia and Embryonal Tumor of Central Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)

###### Theory

- The primary focus of the text is the nontangential maximal function and the area function of a harmonic function and their probabilistic analogues in martingale theory. (springer.com)
- Probabilistic argumentation theory encounters a problem when used to determine the occurrence of Black Swan events since, by definition, those events are so improbable as to seem impossible. (wikipedia.org)
- The theory of probabilistic prognosis originated as a continuation of Nikolai Bernstein's ideas stated in his work "Essays of the Physiology of Movement and Physiology of Activity" (1966) A new direction of studies of probabilistic prognosis started with works of Professor J.Feigenberg(1969), Professor M.Tsiskaridze (1969), and Preofessor V.Ivannikov(1971), and later were widely explored by other scientists. (wikipedia.org)

###### Example

- Here is an example of probabilistic relationship borrowed from Pearl , originally by Cooper. (w3.org)
- Although others before him proved theorems via the probabilistic method (for example, Szele's 1943 result that there exist tournaments containing a large number of Hamiltonian cycles), many of the most well known proofs using this method are due to Erdős. (wikipedia.org)

###### notion

- As a result, many turn to a notion of probabilistic causation. (wikipedia.org)

###### describe

- To describe such probabilistic relations in RDF, I'd like to propose the following vocabulary. (w3.org)

###### Typically

- Typically, the goal of probabilistic design is to identify the design that will exhibit the smallest effects of random variability. (wikipedia.org)

###### forecast

- This technique is not guaranteed to yield an ensemble distribution identical to the actual forecast distribution, but attaining such probabilistic information is one goal of the choice of initial perturbations. (wikipedia.org)
- Canada has been one of the first countries to broadcast their probabilistic forecast by giving chances of precipitation in percentages. (wikipedia.org)

###### extension

- In this paper we present a probabilistic extension of LOTOS which is upward compatible with LOTOS. (psu.edu)
- Probabilistic logics attempt to find a natural extension of traditional logic truth tables: the results they define are derived through probabilistic expressions instead. (wikipedia.org)
- Akin CTL suitability for model-checking PCTL extension is widely used as a property specification language for probabilistic model checkers. (wikipedia.org)

###### model

- A stochastic-event probabilistic seismic hazard model, which can be used further for estimates of seismic loss and seismic risk analysis, has been developed for the territory of Yemen. (hindawi.com)
- The goal of this study is the development and testing of a stochastic-event probabilistic seismic hazard model for the territory of Yemen, which considers the influence of local site conditions and which can be used further for estimates of seismic loss and seismic risk analysis. (hindawi.com)
- Probabilistic databases distinguish between the logical data model and the physical representation of the data much like relational databases do in the ANSI-SPARC Architecture. (wikipedia.org)

###### models

- Probabilistic programs use familiar notation of programming languages to specify probabilistic models. (microsoft.com)
- Learning to represent and incorporate these entities and cues, along with the complexity of the visual world itself, calls for probabilistic models for image parsing. (microsoft.com)
- Other models such as support vector machines are not, but methods exist to turn them into probabilistic classifiers. (wikipedia.org)

###### include

- Common tools used in the probabilistic method include Markov's inequality, the Chernoff bound, and the Lovász local lemma. (wikipedia.org)

###### efficient

- We propose a new definition of SLI(P) which is both correct and efficient for probabilistic programs, by including observe dependence in addition to control and data dependences for computing slices. (microsoft.com)

###### Handbook

- Probabilistic Structural Mechanics Handbook. (wikipedia.org)

###### citation needed

- These are some examples of probabilistic propositions collected by the Mindpixel project:[citation needed] You are not human 0.17 Color and colour are the same word spelled differently 0.95 You do not think the sun will rise tomorrow 0.15 You have never seen the sky 0.13 You are a rock 0.01 Is westlife a pop group? (wikipedia.org)

###### Systems

- We show that by applying the SLI transformation as a pre-pass, we can improve the efficiency of probabilistic inference, not only in our own inference tool R2, but also in other systems for performing inference such as Church and Infer.NET. (microsoft.com)
- Probabilistic database management systems are currently an active area of research. (wikipedia.org)
- While there are currently no commercial probabilistic database systems, several research prototypes exist. (wikipedia.org)

###### proposition

- A probabilistic proposition is a proposition with a measured probability of being true for an arbitrary person at an arbitrary time. (wikipedia.org)

###### observation

- In machine learning, a probabilistic classifier is a classifier that is able to predict, given an observation of an input, a probability distribution over a set of classes, rather than only outputting the most likely class that the observation should belong to. (wikipedia.org)

###### Implementation

- OpenPAS is an open-source implementation of such a probabilistic argumentation system. (wikipedia.org)

###### method

- The probabilistic method is a nonconstructive method, primarily used in combinatorics and pioneered by Paul Erdős, for proving the existence of a prescribed kind of mathematical object. (wikipedia.org)
- Another way to use the probabilistic method is by calculating the expected value of some random variable. (wikipedia.org)
- probabilistic neural networks method to gastric endoscope samples diagnosis based on FTIR spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)

###### goal

- The probabilistic roadmap planner is a motion planning algorithm in robotics, which solves the problem of determining a path between a starting configuration of the robot and a goal configuration while avoiding collisions. (wikipedia.org)

###### programs

- We show that usual notions of program slicing, which traverse control and data dependencies backward from the return expression r, are unsatisfactory for probabilistic programs, since it produces incorrect results on some programs and inefficient results on others. (microsoft.com)
- We show how to automatically synthesize probabilistic programs from real-world datasets. (microsoft.com)
- We have implemented our algorithm in a tool called PS KETCH, and our results are encouraging- PSKETCH is able to automatically synthesize 16 non-trivial realworld probabilistic programs. (microsoft.com)

###### application

- Sports betting is another field of application where probabilistic forecasting can play a role. (wikipedia.org)
- Application of probabilistic neural networks to population pharmacokineties. (wikipedia.org)

###### relationships

- Such relationships can be best described with probabilistic expression. (w3.org)

###### system

- From this perspective, probabilistic design predicts the flow of variability (or distributions) through a system. (wikipedia.org)

###### data

- Our algorithm efficiently synthesizes a probabilistic program that is most consistent with the data. (microsoft.com)
- In a probabilistic database, each data item - relation, tuple and value that an attribute can take - is associated with a probability ∈ (0, with 0 representing that the data is certainly incorrect, and 1 representing that it is certainly correct. (wikipedia.org)
- Consequently, the possible worlds corresponding to the database are as follows: There are essentially two kinds of uncertainties that could exist in a probabilistic database, as described in the table below: By assigning values to random variables associated with the data items, we can represent different possible worlds. (wikipedia.org)

###### propose

- We propose a probabilistic foundation of AA, where the underlying idea is to form the convex hull in the parameter space . (springer.com)

###### exist

- A probabilistic database could exist in multiple states. (wikipedia.org)

###### possible

- In probabilistic databases this is even more crucial since such databases have to represent very large numbers of possible worlds, often exponential in the size of one world (a classical database), succinctly. (wikipedia.org)

###### design

- Probabilistic design is a discipline within engineering design. (wikipedia.org)
- ISBN 0-7918-0035-0 Haugen (1980) Probabilistic mechanical design. (wikipedia.org)

###### means

- Redundant features are merged by means of probabilistic rules that measure the similarity between a pair of image feature. (springer.com)
- Probabilistic prognosis means the anticipation of future events based on a probabilistic structure of past experiences of individual and present situations. (wikipedia.org)

###### analysis

- Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) involves the quantitative estimation of ground shaking hazard at a particular site taking into account characteristics of potentially dangerous earthquakes around the site. (hindawi.com)