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  • inflorescence
  • To understand how axillary meristems are initiated and maintained, we characterized the barren inflorescence2 mutant, which affects axillary meristems in the maize inflorescence. (usda.gov)
  • Because the defects involve the number of organs produced at each stage of development, we conclude that barren inflorescence2 is required for maintenance of all types of axillary meristem in the inflorescence. (usda.gov)
  • mutant
  • The construction of the double mutant between barren inflorescence2 and tasselsheath reveals that the function of barren inflorescence2 is specific to the formation of branch meristems rather than bract leaf primordia. (usda.gov)
  • Introgression of the barren inflorescence2 mutant into genetic backgrounds in which the phenotype was weaker illustrates additional roles of barren inflorescence2 in these axillary meristems. (usda.gov)
  • tissue
  • Scanning electron microscopy, histology and RNA in situ hybridization using knotted1 as a marker for meristematic tissue show that barren inflorescence2 mutants make fewer branches owing to a defect in branch meristem initiation. (usda.gov)
  • plant
  • Axillary meristems, which form in the axils of leaf primordia, give rise to branches and flowers and therefore play a critical role in plant architecture and reproduction. (usda.gov)
  • tissues
  • PIN1b is expressed in broad regions spanning the space between new primordia and previously formed vasculature, suggesting a role in connecting new organs to auxin sinks in the older tissues. (plos.org)
  • Organogenesis in plants, in contrast to animals, proceeds throughout their life span as new tissues and organs are continuously produced by meristems. (biologists.org)
  • It produces lateral organs, stem tissues and regenerates itself. (iastate.edu)
  • cell division serves to constantly replenish the meristem and to provide cells that will differentiate into plant organs and tissues. (iastate.edu)
  • Crosstalk between auxin and cytokinin plays important roles in the development of other meristematic tissues, however hormone interaction studies to date have focused on more accessible later-stage gynoecia and the spatiotemporal interactions pivotal for patterning of early gynoecium primordia remain unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • initiation
  • Scanning electron microscopy, histology and RNA in situ hybridization using knotted1 as a marker for meristematic tissue show that barren inflorescence2 mutants make fewer branches owing to a defect in branch meristem initiation. (usda.gov)
  • Furthermore, the defect in branch meristem formation provides insight into the role of knotted1 and barren inflorescence2 in axillary meristem initiation. (usda.gov)
  • In ferns and angiosperms, the marginal meristem dilates shortly after primordial initiation and fractionates to produces pinnae ( Hagemann, 1984 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Leaf formation begins with the selection of a group of founder cells in the so-called peripheral zone at the flank of the meristem, followed by the initiation of local growth and finally morphogenesis of the resulting bulge into a differentiated leaf. (plantcell.org)
  • Whereas the mechanisms controlling the switch between meristem propagation and leaf initiation are being identified by genetic and molecular analyses, the radial positioning of leaves, known as phyllotaxis, remains poorly understood. (plantcell.org)
  • Whereas genetic analyses provide us with an ever more detailed description of meristem maintenance and propagation, the molecular nature of the mechanisms that trigger leaf initiation and ensure that leaves form at the proper angles relative to each other remains to be established. (plantcell.org)
  • Initiation of the shoot meristem in the embryo requires the action of several genes that were identified in genetic screens for mutants that lack a SAM. (iastate.edu)
  • Occasionally, in weak stm alleles, adventitious shoots will form but the shoots progressively lose their meristem indicating that STM is required for both the initiation and maintenance of SAMs. (iastate.edu)
  • Sussex and Clutter ( 14 ) found that adult leaf primordia of the fern Osmunda cinnamomea develop as juvenile leaves when cultured on a medium containing low levels of sucrose, demonstrating that leaf identity is not specified until after leaf initiation in this species. (pnas.org)
  • Putative null alleles of PSD disrupt the initiation of the shoot apical meristem and delay leaf initiation after germination, the emergence of the radicle and lateral roots, and the transition to flowering. (plantphysiol.org)
  • auxin
  • In Brachypodium distachyon , SoPIN1 is highly expressed in the epidermis and is consistently polarized toward regions of high expression of the DR5 auxin-signaling reporter, which suggests that SoPIN1 functions in the localization of new primordia. (plos.org)
  • We show that inhibition of polar auxin transport blocks leaf formation at the vegetative tomato meristem, resulting in pinlike naked stems with an intact meristem at the tip. (plantcell.org)
  • Exactly which cells within the shoot tip synthesize auxin remains to be determined, and it is entirely open whether the meristem proper is a source of auxin. (plantcell.org)
  • Polar auxin transport (PAT) is important for setting up distinct apical auxin signaling domains in the early floral meristem remnants allowing for lateral domain identity and outgrowth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • maize
  • Together, our data provide evidence that TLS1 is a B transport facilitator in maize, highlighting the importance of B homeostasis in meristem function. (plantcell.org)
  • amp1
  • Here we show that MP patterning activity is largely dispensable when the presumptive carboxypeptidase ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 ( AMP1 ) is not functional, indicating that MP is primarily necessary to counteract AMP1 activity. (biologists.org)
  • LEAFY
  • We have investigated how the differential effects of gibberellins on flowering correlate with expression of LEAFY , a floral meristem identity gene. (plantcell.org)
  • tomato
  • In tomato, the balance between florigen and anti-florigen affects flowering, meristem termination, and even leaf development. (plantae.org)
  • axils
  • After completion of the spring flush meristematic activity continued, to produce floral bracts with florets in their axils. (sun.ac.za)
  • subsequent
  • To test this hypothesis, we placed beads loaded with purified expansin onto the I2 position ( 5 ) and indeed observed the formation of a bulge (I′2) at the position of the bead during the subsequent plastochron (Fig. 1 , C and D). At the same time, the formation of a primordium at position I1 was suppressed. (sciencemag.org)
  • transition
  • The ltm mutants flower later than wild type but their meristems dome earlier (figure), indicating that doming has become uncoupled from the floral transition in these mutants. (plantae.org)
  • genetic
  • Because most genetic mistakes are generated during mitosis, this is probably a mechanism to minimize the occurrence of genetic mistakes in the permanent cell population of the meristem. (iastate.edu)