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  • oocytes
  • Research with rodent species continues to provide the bulk of basic information on early development, in large part because of the ready availability of oocytes and embryos, but it is difficult to know to what extent information can be extrapolated to primate species, including humans. (springer.com)
  • However, the amount and quality of basic scientific data on early development that can be obtained from this source are restricted, in part by ethical constraints (Austin, 1990) and in part by conflicting priorities between research and clinical needs for the supply of oocytes and embryos. (springer.com)
  • The new WPI MICRO-ePORE™ pinpoint cell penetrator is a simple and versatile system that can be used for efficient microinjection of a diverse array of compounds and biomolecules into oocytes and pre-implantation stage mammalian embryos. (wpiinc.com)
  • Electrophysiological systems utilizing negative capacitance have been routinely used for microinjection of a variety of biomolecules into mammalian oocytes, as well as pre-implantation and post-implantation embryos in develomental biology studies.1-6 The system which is no longer available, the intracellular amplifier WPI Cyto721, allows the needle to pierce the cell membrane with minimal physical trauma. (wpiinc.com)
  • Three Person Embryos are embryos from oocytes that contain maternal and paternal DNA, and mitochondria from a third donor. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, we have reviewed how mitochondrial supplementation in oocytes can have beneficial effects for SCNT embryos by increasing mtDNA copy number and the levels of expression of genes involved in energy production and decreasing the levels of expression of genes involved in embryonic cell death. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, manipulating mtDNA in donor cells and/or oocytes prior to SCNT could enhance embryo production efficiency. (springer.com)
  • viable
  • A surprising number of botched chromosomes in eight-day-old embryos may explain why IVF clinics often have to try and try again to start a viable pregnancy. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • One particularly advantageous embodiment is that the starting material is non-viable pre-embryos. (google.es)
  • Another advantageous embodiment is that the AP allows individual cells from non-viable pre-embryos to further multiply, and become integrated into CBs. (google.es)
  • 4 . The preparation of CBs of claim 1 comprising cells derived from non-viable primate pre-embryos. (google.es)
  • 11 . The method of claim 9 wherein one or more of the nucleated cells are derived from a viable embryo. (google.es)
  • uterus
  • A major problem occurs if the fertilized egg tries to implant before reaching its normal implantation site, the uterus. (asu.edu)
  • endometrium
  • The initiation of primate embryo invasion into the endometrium and the formation of the placenta from trophoblasts, fetal mesenchyme, and vascular components are essential for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lower expression of miR-206 in ER compared to LL might facilitate the angiogenesis of the endometrium during embryo implantation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The identified miRNAs that are differentially expressed in the endometrium of ER and LL pigs will contribute to the understanding of the role of miRNAs in embryonic implantation and the molecular mechanisms of the highest embryonic survival in Chinese ER pigs. (frontiersin.org)
  • species
  • A comparison of primate and mouse ES cells suggests that a common underlying blueprint for the pluripotent state has undergone significant species-specific modification. (biologists.org)
  • We need to take these differences into account when we consider the embryological context in which the embryological counterparts of ES cells from the two species first appear (pre-implantation blastocyst) and then differentiate (early postimplantation period). (biologists.org)
  • Zygotic genome activation correlates with the presence of polycomb repressive complexes in all three species, while ribosome biogenesis emerges as a predominant attribute in primate embryos, supporting prolonged translation of maternally deposited RNAs. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • miRNAs
  • Bioinformatics analysis showed that the target genes of some differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in pathways related to angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, and tissue remodeling, which play critical roles in implantation by regulating endometrial structural changes and secretions of hormones, growth factors, and nutrients. (frontiersin.org)
  • The discovery of extracellular miRNAs shed new light on implantation studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MiRNAs provide new mechanisms for embryo-maternal communication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the involvement of miRNAs in embryo implantation from several aspects, focusing on the role of extracellular miRNAs and their potential applications in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to promote fertility efficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fetus
  • Abortion is the removal of the embryo or fetus from the womb, before birth can occur-either naturally or by induced labor. (asu.edu)
  • Quickening, the point at which a pregnant woman can first feel the movements of the growing embryo or fetus, has long been considered a pivotal moment in pregnancy. (asu.edu)
  • gene expression
  • MicroRNA (miRNA), functioning as the transcriptional regulator of gene expression, has been widely reported to be involved in embryo implantation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, there are beneficial effects of mtDNA supplementation over the use of nuclear reprograming agents in terms of regulating gene expression in embryos. (springer.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11779183 Paternally expressed imprinted genes (Pegs) were systematically screened by comparing gene expression profiles of parthenogenetic and normal fertilized embryos using an oligonucleotide array. (jove.com)
  • embryonic cells
  • Some domestic animals such as ruminants, horses, and pigs present non-invasive implantation, where the embryonic cells remain superficial or slightly fuse with the endometrial epithelium cells (EEC), forming synepitheliochorial (ruminants) or epitheliochorial placenta (pigs and horses). (biomedcentral.com)
  • viability
  • In contrast to conventional microinjection, in targeted microinjection using the MICRO-ePORE™, the membrane does not tear and thus allows for superior viability of embryos. (wpiinc.com)
  • MICRO-ePORE™ was designed for a range of applications including generation of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knock-in mice with large insertions by microinjection into two-cell stage embryos with high viability.7 The MICRO-ePORE™ has delivered accurate microinjection of morpholino oligomers (anti-sense "knockdown") in zebrafish tails. (wpiinc.com)
  • Determinants of implantation include the embryo viability, the endometrial receptivity, and embryo-maternal interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although ART has brought solutions to some fertility problems, implantation rate has not been greatly improved, and challenges remain regarding the poor accuracy of the methods to assess embryonic viability and endometrial receptivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • primitive endoderm
  • Sequential activation of GATA6, SOX17 and GATA4 markers of primitive endoderm identity is conserved in primates. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Shortly before implantation, the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst gives rise to the primitive endoderm, which will generate the visceral and parietal yolk sacs, and the epiblast, which represents the precursor of all tissues of the body, including the germ line. (biologists.org)
  • endometrial
  • Moreover, they may serve as non-invasive biomarkers for embryo selection and assessment of endometrial receptivity in assisted reproduction, which improves the accuracy of evaluation while reducing the mechanical damage to the tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sperm
  • Laboratories are starting to routinely check chromosomes at a few days after an egg and sperm join, before the embryo is placed in the womb. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • For pre-implantation diagnosis, it takes three days after an egg and sperm join in a dish before enough cells are available for scientists to sample without harm. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • The prospective ventral side of the embryo forms on the side where the sperm enters while the prospective dorsal side forms opposite the sperm s point of entry. (asu.edu)
  • mechanisms
  • The mechanisms which direct morphogenesis of the chorionic villi, and the interactions between trophectoderm-derived trophoblasts and the fetal mesenchyme to direct these processes during placentation are not well understood due to a dearth of systems to examine and manipulate real-time primate implantation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple molecules are involved in the regulation of implantation, but their specific regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondrial
  • Collectively, the techniques for the creation of Three Person Embryos are referred to as Mitochondrial Donation or Mitochondrial replacement-assisted IVF. (edu.au)
  • collectively
  • The origin of the aneuploidy, the number of extra chromosomes, their distribution in the early embryo, and the identity of the cells affected collectively determine the fitness of the embryo. (embopress.org)
  • germ
  • From a developing embryos three primary germ layers, ectoderm (green), mesoderm (pink) and endoderm (yellow), a variety of differentiated cell types and organ systems arise, far more than are shown here. (asu.edu)
  • The three primary germ layers are shown during the gastrula stage because they become distinct at the gastrula stage. (asu.edu)
  • monkeys
  • For instance, in the second LDH-C4 primate trial that had negative results, all of the immunized macaque monkeys developed high antibody titers against LDH-C4 in serum, but antibodies against LDH-C4 were not found in the monkeys' vaginal fluids. (wikipedia.org)