• reviewing the evidence accumulated on a worldwide basis, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded in 2004 that "Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenatal memory, also called fetal memory, is important for the development of memory in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eating fish is the main source of mercury exposure in humans and some fish may contain enough mercury to harm the developing nervous system of an embryo or fetus, sometimes leading to learning disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the key hypotheses to explain programming, namely over exposure of the developing fetus to glucocorticoids, was proposed nearly two decades ago, following the observation that the fetus was protected from high glucocorticoid levels in the mother by the actions of the placental barrier enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts active glucocorticoids into inactive products. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The dietary questionnaire response is likely to be an imprecise proxy for the transfer of seafood nutrients to the fetus, and this imprecision may bias the confounder-adjusted mercury effect estimate. (harvard.edu)
  • Among mothers who drink during pregnancy fetal alcohol exposure is influenced not only by mother's intake but also by genetic variants carried by both the mother and the fetus. (le.ac.uk)
  • Evidence of OP exposure in pregnant mothers are linked to several health effects in the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, depending on the type of toxicant and amount of exposure, a fetus can be exposed toxicant at any time during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, exposure to a particular toxicant at one time in the pregnancy may result in organ damage and at another time in the pregnancy could cause death of the fetus and miscarriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal memory is vulnerable to certain diseases so much so that exposure can permanently damage the development of the fetus and even terminate the pregnancy by aborting the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of certain substances can entail long-term permanent effects on the fetus that can carry on throughout their lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug use during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of cocaine on a fetus are thought to be similar to those of tobacco and less severe than those of alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, severe degrees of inefficiency produce changes in the fetus and problems in prenatal or perinatal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental toxins can be described separately by what effects they have, such as structural abnormalities, altered growth, functional deficiencies, congenital neoplasia, or even death for the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are agents extrinsic to embryo or fetus which exert deleterious effects leading to increased risk of malformation, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, altered function, deficient growth or pregnancy wastage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertically transmitted infections Radiation, such as X-rays Mechanical forces, such as oligohydramnios Teratogens affect the fetus by various mechanism including: Interfering with cell proliferation rate, such as viral infection and ionization Altered biosynthetic pathways, as seen in chromosomal defects Abnormal cellular or tissue interactions, as seen in diabetes Extrinsic factors Threshold interaction of genes with environmental teratogens Neuroplastic effects of pollution can give rise to neurodevelopmental disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • From these studies it is possible to conclude that prenatal protein nutrition is vital to the development of the fetus, especially the brain, the susceptibility to diseases in adulthood, and even gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the infant is born it may have poor weight gain, frequent infections, developmental delays and emotional problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sub-par fetal conditions often cause various degrees of developmental delays, both physical and mental, for the growing baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these measurement instruments, he has been able to develop computer-based techniques for enhancing intellectual ability in children suffering from a variety of disorders associated with developmental delays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early childhood intervention is a support and educational system for very young children (aged birth to six years) who have been victims of, or who are at high risk for child abuse and/or neglect as well as children who have developmental delays or disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Part C (originally Part H) program mandates a statewide, comprehensive, multidisciplinary service system to address the needs of infants and toddlers who are experiencing developmental delays or a diagnosed physical or mental condition with a high probability of an associated developmental disability in one or more of the following areas: cognitive development, physical development, language and speech development, psychosocial development, and self-help skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that levels of growth factors and hormones are strongly associated with stem cell potential in human umbilical cord blood and point to a potential mechanism that may mediate the relationship between in utero exposure to hormones and cancer risk in the offspring. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, in utero exposure to some estrogen based fertility drugs like diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been linked to genital abnormalities and/or a smaller than normal penis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenatal immune challenge affects growth, behavior, and brain dopamine in offspring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This paper examines the effect of maternal ganglionectomy (pineal gland sympathetic denervation) or extirpation of the pineal gland on pups' drinking rhythms, a behavior that is continuously monitored in individual animals starting after weaning and studied up to 3 weeks later. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A key concept is that toxic effects may be manifest as subtle disturbances of behavior long before any classical symptoms of poisoning become apparent. (springer.com)
  • Effects of barbiturates on behavior of rat offspring as measured in learning and reasoning situations. (springer.com)
  • Our new method characterizes the degree of prenatal exposure, with the potential to help detect subtler effects on developmental outcomes, such as deficits in growth or development, neonatal temperament and behavior, and psychological functioning. (umassmed.edu)
  • Problems associated with FASD include facial anomalies, low birth weight, stunted growth, small head size, delayed or uncoordinated motor skills, hearing or vision problems, learning disabilities, behavior problems, and inappropriate social skills compared to same-age peers. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has published over 150 articles in medical and scientific journals on the damaging effects of second-hand smoke, lead exposure, and countless other determinants of children's health and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies from developed nations have found that with the exception of extreme intrauterine growth retardation also affecting brain growth, and hypoxic injury, IUGR seems to have little or no measurable effect on mental performance and behavior in adolescence or adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such concerns are usually explained by one of the following: a penis concealed in suprapubic fat (extra fat around the mons pubis) a large body and frame for which a prepubertal penis simply appears too small delayed puberty with every reason to expect good future growth Growth of the penis both before birth and during childhood and puberty is strongly influenced by testosterone and, to a lesser degree, the growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Puberty which starts later than usual is known as delayed puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1944. The effect of the administration of sodium bromide to pregnant rats on the learning ability of offspring: IIL Three-table test. (springer.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: The effects of tobacco exposure are typically examined by comparing groups based on a cut-score of self-reported number of cigarettes or bioassays collected in cross-sectional studies. (umassmed.edu)
  • Morphological changes in the nervous system following exposure to ionising radiation. (springer.com)
  • Symposium on Effects of Ionising Radiation on the Nervous System , pp. 309-358. (springer.com)
  • On the other hand, evidence is conflicting for carbamazepine regarding any increased risk of congenital physical anomalies or neurodevelopmental disorders by intrauterine exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings are consistent with other reports in the literature and with the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure affects development through changes in neurotransmitter systems. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By the 20th century, the concept of epigenesis the interaction between a genetic program and environment was established and in the second half of the 20th century researchers had evidence that environmental factors can cause malformations and even trans-generational effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: These results suggest that uncontrolled confounding from a beneficial parameter, and imprecision of this confounder, may cause substantial underestimation of the effects of a toxic exposure. (harvard.edu)
  • Associations between children's cognitive function and both maternal and child genotype at these loci can shed light on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on offspring cognitive development. (le.ac.uk)
  • The only cognitive processes for which enduring cognitive changes were demonstrated in rehabilitated animals - outside of effects mediated by these affective changes - are cognitive flexibility and, possibly, susceptibility to proactive interference. (unu.edu)
  • Cognitive impairment and dementia: Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, studies have failed to clearly show that PCE has negative cognitive effects, partly because such effects may be due to concurrent factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health effects on intelligence have been described as being among the most important factors in the origins of human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Australia's categorisations system takes into account the birth defects, the effects around the birth or when the mother gives birth, and problems that will arise later in the child's life caused from the drug taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are some studies in which prenatal protein deficiency has been shown to have unfavorable consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S. Code of Federal Regulations requires that certain drugs and biological products must be labelled very specifically with respect to their effects on pregnant populations, including a definition of a "pregnancy category. (wikipedia.org)