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  • molecular
  • Protection against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice by adoptive transfer of a T cell clone recognizing a low molecular weight antigen released by promastigotes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular analysis of CDR3 Vβ repertoire after CD4+ DLI demonstrated previously that the development of GVM and graft- versus -host-disease (GVHD) were associated with the clonal expansion of distinct T-cell populations in patient peripheral blood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, FHL2 translocation could be important in regulating the different molecular signaling pathways which modify carcinogenesis, for example, nuclear translocation of FHL2 is related to aggressiveness and recurrence of prostate cancer Similar evidence also has been identified in experiment using A7FIL+ cells and NIH 3T3 cell line as the disease model. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • By using the combination of reverse-transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods, a cDNA encoding mast cell tryptase was successfully cloned from the small intestine of Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. (biochemj.org)
  • PAK3 was initially cloned from a murine fibroblast cDNA library and from a murine embryo cDNA library. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • It is a proto-oncogene, that is, it codes for a protein which is required for the survival of normal, non-tumor cells. (google.com)
  • To the extent that GVHD targets antigens that are also expressed by recipient tumor cells, GVHD can also be responsible for significant GVL activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • gene
  • The transfection of hammerhead ribozyme or the addition of chemically modified ribozyme against the flanking region of V3-7 caused a potent and selective inhibition of anti-DNA production in V3-7-using B cell clones, but not in irrelevant V gene-using clones in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • V gene analysis also revealed that the V3-7 or VH4-21 gene, which encodes nephritogenic anti-DNA Ab O-81 or NE-1, was preferentially used for IgG anti-DNA autoantibodies or IgG anti-acetylcholine receptor Abs associated with autoimmune diseases, but not for the Abs to exogenous Ags ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The human c-myb gene has been isolated, cloned, and sequenced. (google.com)
  • Although these data may implicate the c-myb gene product as a potentially important regulator of hematopoietic cell development, this evidence is largely of an indirect nature. (google.com)
  • These features are key factors for successful stem cell transplantations that are used in cancer patients and in gene therapy protocols. (rupress.org)
  • is that they are not co-transforming two plasmids but a linearized plasmid (preferentially with a gap) plus a DNA fragment (gene of interest) containing some homology with the linearized plasmid. (protocol-online.org)
  • The yeast cells will use homologous recombination and 'clone' the gene for you. (protocol-online.org)
  • If you co-transfect the plasmid of interest with 10 times more molecules then the plasmid with the resistance gene, you can calculate the probability that a cell that becomes resistant, did not take up your plasmid of interest. (protocol-online.org)
  • This gene is a direct transcription target of NF-kappa B in response to inflammatory mediators, and has been shown to be up-regulated by different extracellular signals, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), CD40, phorbol ester and inflammatory cytokine TNF and IL-1, which suggests a cytoprotective function that is essential for lymphocyte activation as well as cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In melanocytic cells BCL2A1 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LYAR gene (Ly-1 antibody reactive clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • In HeLa cells TEAD1 and SRC induce gene expression, TEAD1 interacts with PARP (Poly-ADP ribose polymerase) to regulate smooth muscle α-actin expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In most cervical carcinomas, human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes are integrated into host cell chromosomes and transcribed into mRNAs encompassing viral and cellular sequences. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FTK-OspA did not stimulate human or mouse DR4-restricted, WT-OspA-specific T cells, whereas it did stimulate antibody responses specific for WT-OspA that were similar to mice vaccinated WT-OspA. (stanford.edu)
  • The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD14, a surface antigen that is preferentially expressed on monocytes/macrophages. (cellsciences.com)
  • Tetherin is a human cellular protein which inhibits retrovirus infection by preventing the diffusion of virus particles after budding from infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-to-cell transmission through virological synapse in human retroviruses is also inhibited by tetherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human natural killer (NK) cells and activated lymphocytes express and store a distinct subset of neutral serine proteases together with proteoglycans and other immune effector molecules in large cytoplasmic granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK 293 cells were generated in 1973 by transformation of cultures of normal human embryonic kidney cells with sheared adenovirus 5 DNA in Alex van der Eb's laboratory in Leiden, the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Oncogenes are genes whose expression within a cell provides some function in the transformation from normal to tumor cell. (google.com)
  • When the presence of virus and viral components is detected by recognition molecules such as (RIG-I), a cascades of interactions happen between signaling molecules, eventually the signal reaches the nucleus to upregulate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), this in turn activates IFN-a pathway to send the signal to neighboring cells, which causes upregulation in the expression of other ISGs and many viral restriction factors, such as tetherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitopes
  • Recent work from our laboratory identified T cell crossreactivity between epitopes of OspA and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1alpha(L) chain (LFA-1alpha(L)) in these patients. (stanford.edu)
  • detectable
  • T-cell clones associated with GVM were detectable by clone-specific PCR at a low level in peripheral blood before DLI and expanded ∼10-fold after DLI. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, T-cell clones associated with GVHD were not detectable before DLI or before the development of clinical GVHD. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Throughout the course of infection, enzyme-histochemically detectable tryptase activity was limited to mucosal mast cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Tetherin exists as a dimer on the surface of cells, and prevention of dimerisation by mutating the cystine residues, prevents tetherin from inhibiting virus release, although it is still detectable in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • PubMed ID : 15843547 Starnes T, Rasila KK, Robertson MJ, Brahmi Z, Dahl R, Christopherson K, Hromas R. The chemokine CXCL14 (BRAK) stimulates activated NK cell migration: implications for the downregulation of CXCL14 in malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specificity
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that the GVM response is mediated by donor-derived CD8+ T-cell clones with antimyeloma specificity that may be present before DLI. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • and to develop a new method for liver transplantation that uses autologous cells without immunosuppression. (stanford.edu)
  • LYAR is present at high levels in early embryos and preferentially in the liver fetal thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lymphatic endothelial cells, experimentation has indicated that podoplanin plays a role in proper formation of linkages between the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic systems, typically causing fatty liver disease in these mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The stabilization of the protein through disulfide bond within the coiled coil region seems to be important in its function Tetherin is known to block many different types of enveloped viruses by tethering the budding virus like particles (VLPs) and inhibiting them from leaving the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein has been found to have functions in lung alveolar cells, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytes
  • This chemokine is chemotactic for monocytes and can activate these cells in the presence of an inflammatory mediator called prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2). (wikipedia.org)
  • migrate
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are able to migrate through the blood stream and engraft bone marrow (BM) niches. (rupress.org)
  • Thus far, it is unknown how individual HSC clones migrate and distribute among skeletal niches after transplantation and how this is affected by mobilization-inducing cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • Following activation, CD8 T cells can migrate to sites of infection and kill infected cells, whereas CD4 T cells contribute to the elimination of pathogens by trafficking to infected tissues and providing help to innate immune responses, B cells, as well as CD8 T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • specificities
  • Our findings demonstrate that islet Ag-reactive CD4 + memory T cells with unique Ag specificities and phenotypes are expanded during disease progression and can be detected by single-cell analysis of peripheral blood. (jimmunol.org)
  • apoptosis
  • However, it is now evident that CD4 T cells can also perform cytotoxic functions and induce the apoptosis of target cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • YAP/TAZ are effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway that restricts organ growth by keeping in check cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in mammals and also in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • It forms a functional complex with TSLP and IL7R, capable of stimulating cell proliferation through activation of STAT3, STAT5 and JAK2 pathways and is implicated in the development of the hematopoietic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Expanded clones from two T1D subjects recognized distinct IGRP peptides, implicating this molecule as a trigger for CD4 + T cell expansion. (jimmunol.org)
  • migration
  • Here we determine the degree of hematopoietic migration at a clonal level by transplanting individual young and aged mouse HSCs labeled with barcoded viral vector, followed by assessing the skeletal distribution of hundreds of HSC clones. (rupress.org)
  • Tetherin has also been predicted to be involved in cell adhesion and cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • RhoGDI3 is predominantly expressed in brain, lung, kidney, testis and pancreas, and is targeted to specific parts of the cell such as the Golgi where it may play a role in transport or proteins in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens
  • It has been postulated that these donor T cells can be directed at either tumor-associated antigens (5) or minor histocompatibility antigens (6 , 7 , 8) , but the specific antigens that are targets of effective DLI responses in vivo have not been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T cells provide protective immunity against various viral infections by generating effector cells that cooperate to eliminate antigens and memory cells that can survive for long periods with enhanced abilities to control recurring pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • bone
  • One GVM clone specifically recognized patient myeloma cells in an HLA class I-restricted manner, but was not reactive with patient normal bone marrow cells or patient EBV transformed B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • The significance of islet Ag-reactive T cells found in peripheral blood of type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects is unclear, partly because similar cells are also found in healthy control (HC) subjects. (jimmunol.org)
  • embryonic
  • Given the location of the adrenal gland (adrenal means "next to the kidney"), a few adrenal cells could plausibly have appeared in an embryonic kidney derived culture, and could be preferentially transformed by adenovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • An embryonic adrenal precursor cell therefore seems the most likely origin cell of the HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • We hypothesized that key disease-associated cells would show evidence of prior Ag exposure, inferred from expanded TCR clonotypes, and essential phenotypic properties in their transcriptomes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Accumulating evidence for a role of islet Ag-reactive CD4 + T cells in development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has spurred efforts to use them to investigate disease mechanisms and as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for β cell destruction ( 1 - 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The expansion of a particular clone of immune B cells is usually interpreted by clinicians as evidence of unrestricted cell growth, the hallmark of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • When the virion buds from the surface of the cell, one of the tetherin membrane domains is in the new viral membrane, the other remains in the plasma membrane, tethering the virion to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • We applied these procedures to analysis of islet Ag-reactive CD4 + memory T cells from the blood of T1D and HC individuals after activation with pooled immunodominant islet peptides. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although levels of islet Ag-reactive cells may be increased in the pancreas ( 2 , 3 ), biopsy of this organ is not tenable in humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • Numerous studies have reported detection of islet Ag-reactive CD4 + T cells in blood of at-risk and T1D subjects, but these cells are often detected in healthy control (HC) subjects as well ( 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We also demonstrated that B. gingivalis-reactive W3/25+ T cells belong to the OX22- T cell population, suggesting that OX22- T cells could be 'memory' cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • immune
  • Continuous generation and regeneration of all blood and immune cells over the lifespan of an organism is ensured by a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). (rupress.org)
  • precursor
  • From the results of a limiting dilution analysis, the antigen-specific T precursor frequency for W3/25+ cells was 1 : 5000, compared with 1 : 18000 for OX8 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to IL12, which acts mainly on naive CD4(+) T cells, IL23 preferentially acts on memory CD4(+) T cells. (cellsciences.com)
  • In contrast, T-cell clones associated with GVHD are expanded de novo after DLI. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast to its role as a metastasis suppressor in bladder cancer, in breast, RhoGDI2 expression has been reported to be upregulated in cancer and to promote invasion of breast cancer cells, while another report found a biphasic expression pattern of RhoGDI2 in breast cancer with decreased expression correlating with lymph node metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • For some viruses, such as Dengue virus, tetherin inhibits the budding of virions as well as cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Herein we report that the only known naturally occurring positive regulator of complement, properdin, binds predominantly to late apoptotic and necrotic cells, but not to early apoptotic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We found that properdin binds predominantly to late apoptotic and necrotic cells independently of C3b, but not to early apoptotic cells, leading to alternative pathway-mediated complement activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • DNA was identified as one of the ligands on dying cells to which properdin binds. (jimmunol.org)
  • Death receptor 4 (DR4), also known as TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAILR1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10A (TNFRSF10A), is a cell surface receptor of the TNF-receptor superfamily that binds TRAIL and mediates apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Differential T cell receptor photoaffinity labeling among H-2Kd restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones specific for a photoreactive peptide derivative. (unil.ch)
  • Using a direct binding assay based on photoaffinity labeling, we studied the interaction of T cell receptor (TCR) with a Kd-bound photoreactive peptide derivative on living cells. (unil.ch)
  • The Kd-restricted Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) peptide 253-260 (YIPSAEKI) was reacted NH2-terminally with biotin and at the TCR contact residue Lys259 with photoreactive iodo, 4-azido salicylic acid (IASA) to make biotin-YIPSAEK(IASA)I. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones derived from mice immunized with this derivative recognized this conjugate, but not a related one lacking the IASA group nor the parental PbCS peptide. (unil.ch)
  • coli cells
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • There are 14 different mammalian Siglecs, providing an array of different functions based on cell surface receptor-ligand interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • In rhesus macaques rapid progression to simian AIDS has been associated with failure to regenerate critical effector immune cells at the tissue/environment interface, whereas in the remainder of infected animals, a striking proliferative response presumably derived from the naïve and central memory T cell compartment is observed [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • For example, MAG is found only on oligodendrocytes and schwann cells whereas Sialoadhesin is localised to macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDE1A and PDE1B preferentially hydrolyse cGMP, whereas PDE1C degrades both cAMP and cGMP with high affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • More recently it has been suggested that there is selective depletion of the Th17 cells from the GI tract- and that the loss of these cells may result in loss of mucosal integrity, translocation of microbial products, immune activation and subsequent CD4 + T cell loss [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Recognition
  • Our data indicate that direct recognition of dying cells by properdin is essential to drive alternative pathway complement activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated whether properdin, like C1q and MBL, contributes to the recognition and opsonization of dying cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • tissue
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many biological and forensic cases involving genetic analysis require sequencing of DNA from minute amounts of sample, such as DNA from uncultured single cells or trace amounts of tissue collected from crime scenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • This means that the majority of Siglecs only bind ligands on the surface of the same cell, so called cis -ligands, as they are "swamped" by glycans on the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • One exception is Sialoadhesin which contains 16 C2-Ig domains, producing a long, extended protein allowing it to bind trans-ligands, i.e. ligands found on other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Cells were isolated from the bone marrow of CML-BC patients and were treated with 1 μM ATO and 5 nM nilotinib, either alone or in combination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tumour
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body. (genecards.org)
  • Because the presence of PTPkappa at the cell membrane was shown to sequester β-catenin to the plasma membrane, these data suggest that one mechanism whereby PTPkappa functions as a tumor suppressor is by regulating the intracellular localization of free-β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • showed that HAP1 is localized in mitotic spindle of dividing striatal cells, and associated endosomes, microtubules and vesicles in the basal forebrain and striatial neurons - where HAP1B is preferentially expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific
  • Using SphK inhibitor and specific sirna targeting either SphK1 or SphK2, we also unequivocally established that SphK1, but not SphK2, promotes H2691 mesothelioma cell proliferation. (docplayer.net)
  • Therefore, a more efficient non-sequence-specific method to amplify minute amounts of DNA is necessary, especially in single cell genomic studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular second messengers such as cGMP and cAMP undergo rapid changes in concentration in a response to a wide variety of cell specific stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice generated from these ES cells were viable, suggesting that PTPkappa phosphatase activity is not necessary for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • We thus propose that for these CTL clones, labeling of the alpha chain occurs via the J alpha-encoded tryptophan residue. (unil.ch)
  • molecule
  • The TCR of four clones could be photoaffinity labeled by biotin-YIPSAEK(125IASA)I. This labeling was dependent on the conjugates binding to the Kd molecule and was selective for the TCR alpha (2 clones) or beta chain (1 clone), or was common for both chains (1 clone). (unil.ch)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism proposed to explain the influence of PTPkappa on cell proliferation is via PTPkappa dephosphorylation of the EGFR on tyrosines 1068 and 1173 directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of in vitro regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin, PDE1s are believed to function as a mechanism for integrating cell signalling pathways mediated by cGMP and cAMP with pathways that regulate intracellular calcium levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylated β-catenin translocates to the cell nucleus and activates TCF-mediated transcription to promote cell proliferation and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • PTPkappa likely regulates T-cell development by positively regulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation via the regulation of MEK1/2 and c-Raf phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • In humans, homozygous deficiency of any of the early components of the classical pathway of complement activation (C1q, C1r, C1s, C4, and C2) predisposes to the development of SLE ( 9 ), suggesting that complement is involved in removal of dying cells and the immune regulation associated with this process. (jimmunol.org)
  • vitro
  • Complement-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells has been well documented both in vitro ( 10 ) and in vivo ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It has been actively used in cell-free cloning, which is the enzymatic method of amplifying DNA in vitro without cell culturing and DNA extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notch
  • We also show that levels of Notch protein on the cell surface were markedly decreased by loss of Hs3st-B . These findings suggest that Hs3st-B is involved in Notch signaling by affecting stability or intracellular trafficking of Notch protein. (rupress.org)
  • cellular
  • However, increased levels of cellular and soluble markers of immune activation were documented in cells and plasma of HIV-uninfected IDU subjects compared to non-injectors. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)