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  • adhesion
  • Extracellular proteolysis of receptors irreversibly inactivates receptor-mediated adhesion and signaling, as well as releasing soluble fragments into the plasma where they act as potential markers or modulators. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using GPVI as the main example, this review will discuss recent studies on proteolytic pathways in platelets with respect to (1) the proteinases involved, (2) key adhesion receptors, and (3) how both receptors and proteinases might be regulated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Surface glycoproteins with cell adhesion properties expressed in MT, such as gp90, gp82, gp30, and gp35/50, which are differentially expressed in different strains, bind to target cells in a receptor-mediated manner and trigger signaling pathways that may result or not in efficient parasite internalization ( Yoshida, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor cell adhesion and migration to laminin are important events during invasion and metastatic spread. (ac.be)
  • In vitro studies suggest Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene (APP) is involved in interaction with the extracellular matrix, neurite growth, adhesion, development, synaptic function, platelet function, and interaction with GTP binding proteins. (scirp.org)
  • The adhesion family of G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) comprises 33 members in human, several of which are distinctly expressed and functionally involved in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The invasive phenotype of the immortalized cells was also reflected by the consistent expression of several metastasis-associated adhesion molecules, including α5 (eight of nine), α6 (five of nine), αV (nine of nine), β1 (nine of nine), and β3 (nine of nine) integrin subunits and the M r 67,000 laminin receptor (seven of nine). (aacrjournals.org)
  • binds
  • 15 . An antibody which binds to one or more epitopes in human EDG1 protein, wherein said EDG1 protein comprises SEQ ID NO. 2. (google.co.uk)
  • It is known that E protein is not only a functional protein molecule that binds to receptors on the host cell membrane but also a major antigen, which can induce neutralizing antibody and host specific protective immunity [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2-6 Major consequences of signal transduction following engagement of GPVI or GPIb-IX-V include (1) activation of platelet integrins, primarily α IIb β 3 that binds vWF or fibrinogen and mediates platelet aggregation, and (2) activation of pathways leading to metalloproteinase-dependent receptor ectodomain shedding. (ahajournals.org)
  • Galectin-3, a multifunctional member of the galectin family, binds specifically the poly-N-acetyllactosamine residues of laminin and has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. (ac.be)
  • Expression
  • These observations in association with the changes in FGF gene expression and in the FGF receptor number, suggest that cellular mechanisms downstream from FGF receptor binding are involved in the two different forms of AD. (springer.com)
  • 2004. Protease-activated receptors of human brain microvascular endothelial cells: Expression and differential Ca 2+ signaling induced by thrombin and protease-activated receptor-1 activating peptide. (asmscience.org)
  • The platelet plasma membrane is literally at the cutting-edge of recent research into proteolytic regulation of the function and surface expression of platelet receptors, revealing new mechanisms for how the thrombotic propensity of platelets is controlled in health and disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • This review focuses on proteolytic pathways that regulate the function and surface expression of platelet receptors involved in hemostasis and thrombotic disease such as heart attack or stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent biochemical and cellular studies on shedding pathways 7-10 and surface expression 11-13 of GPVI illustrate some of the key mechanisms underlying platelet receptor proteolysis, and recent preclinical studies 14 show how significant these findings may be in the context of thrombotic risk. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, the way in which proteinases and platelet receptor expression might be regulated physiologically and/or therapeutically will be considered. (ahajournals.org)
  • The discovery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2-angiotensin (1-7)-Mas receptor axis that exerts vasodilator, antiproliferative, and antifibrotic actions opposed to those of the ACE-Ang II-AT 1 receptor axis has led to the hypothesis that a decrease in the expression or activity of angiotensin (1-7) renders the systems more susceptible to the pathological actions of Ang II. (hindawi.com)
  • Given the successful demonstration of beneficial effects of increased expression of ACE2/formation of Ang1-7/Mas receptor binding and modulation of Mas expression in animal models in containing cerebrovascular pathology in hypertensive conditions and aging, one could reasonably hope for analogous effects regarding the prevention of cognitive decline by protecting against hypertension and cerebral microvascular damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Increased expression of the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), one of the several laminin binding proteins, is associated with the invasive and metastatic capacity of various types of cancer, including breast, colon, ovary, lung, and endometrial carcinoma. (ac.be)
  • Expression and regulation of toll-like receptor 2 in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • RNA sequencing and mass-spectrometry revealed abundant RNA and protein expression of ADGRG3/GPR97 in granulocyte precursors and terminally differentiated neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic granulocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, hypoxic conditions, frequently existing in a tumor microenvironment, induce cancer cell expression of c-Met, the bona fide receptor of HGF, and CXCR4, the signaling receptor of the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF1), and further stimulate cancer cell migration and dissemination ( 35 , 36 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • At the nonpermissive temperature, cessation of large T antigen expression was accompanied by induction of p53, as well as the p53-dependent proteins, wild-type p53-activated fragment-1/Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase)-interacting protein-1 (p21/Waf1), Bcl (B-cell lymphoma)-associated protein (Bax), and murine double minute 2 (MDM2), that lead to cell cycle-arrest, suicide, and p53 inhibition, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nonetheless, coculturing cells in vitro with matrix proteins did not up-regulate α v β 6 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • amyloid
  • It is pathologically characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles as the result of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau accumulation, as well as extracellular amyloid deposits, called senile plaques ( 1 ), with a progressive accumulation of insoluble amyloid in brain parenchyma and vasculature. (springer.com)
  • Senile plaques are mainly composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide which is generated by the anomalous endoproteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (springer.com)
  • P. Panegyres and E. Atkins, "The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: II Experimental Evidence and Clinical Studies," Neuroscience and Medicine , Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 239-267. (scirp.org)
  • S. B. Roberts, J. A. Ripellino, K. M. Ingalls, N. K. Robakis and K. M. Felstein, "Non-Amyloidogenic Cleavage of the B-Amyloid Precursor Protein by an Integral Membrane Metalloendopeptidase," Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 269, No. 4, 1994, pp. 3111- 3116. (scirp.org)
  • C. Haass, E. H. Koo, A. Mellon, A. Y. Hung and D. J. Selkoe, "Targeting of Cell-Surface B-Amyloid Precursor Protein to Lysosomes: Alternative Processing into Amyloid-Bearing Fragments," Nature, Vol. 357, No. 6378, 1992, pp. 500-502. (scirp.org)
  • C. Haass and D. J. Selkoe, "Cellular Processing of β- Amyloid Precursor and the Genesis of Amyloid B- Peptide," Cell, Vol. 75, No. 6, 1993, pp. 1039-1042. (scirp.org)
  • M. L. Oster-Granite, D. L. McPhie, J. Greenan and R. L. Neve, "Age-Dependent Neuronal and Synaptic Degenera- tion in Mice Transgenic for the C Terminus of the Amyloid Precursor Protein," Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 16, No. 21, 1996, pp. 6732-6741. (scirp.org)
  • Beta-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibition Impairs Synaptic Plasticity via Seizure Protein 6. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In contrast, no difference was noted for amyloid precursor protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peptides
  • In both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, lipoproteins are initially translated as preprolipoproteins (Fig. 1 ), which possess an N-terminal signal peptide of around 20 amino acids with typical characteristic features of the signal peptides of secreted proteins ( 76 ). (asm.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • The single open reading frame is directly translated into a polyprotein precursor [ 1 ], which is subsequently glycosylated by cellular glycosyltransferases and cleaved by proteases from virus and host cell to release three structural proteins (envelope glycoprotein (E), membrane (M), and capsid (C)) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b, and NS5). (hindawi.com)
  • Among them, E protein is the main structural protein with 55 kDa, which is a glycoprotein embedded in the viral membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, a focus on proteolytic regulation of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein (GP)VI, illustrates many of the key biochemical, cellular, and clinical implications of current research in this area. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, platelet-specific receptors, glycoprotein (GP)VI and the GPIb-IX-V complex that bind collagen or von Willebrand factor (vWF), respectively, form a physical and functional complex 1 initiating platelet thrombus formation at high shear stress in flowing blood. (ahajournals.org)
  • secretion
  • As shown in Figure 1 , latent TGF β is composed of a TGF β dimer in a noncovalent complex with the TGF β propeptide or latency-associated peptide (LAP) that remains bound to TGF β after secretion, retaining TGF β in an inactive form and the latent TGF β -binding protein (LTBP) which is linked to LAP by a disulfide bond [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • fibronectin
  • α v β 6 can bind to several ligands, including fibronectin, tenascin, and the latency-associated peptide-1 and latency-associated peptide-3 (LAP1 and LAP3), the NH 2 -terminal region of the latent precursor form of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, through a direct interaction with an RGD motif ( 2 , 13 , 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • collagen
  • Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and collagen were measured in skin fibroblasts from patients with familial, sporadic AD (FAD and SAD respectively), and from age-matched controls by radiolabeled precursors. (springer.com)
  • 1993
  • 1993. Covalently immobilized laminin peptide Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) supports cell spreading and co-localization of the 67-kilodalton laminin receptor with alpha-actinin and vinculin. (asmscience.org)
  • Strongin, A. Y., Marmer, B. L., Grant, G. A., and Goldberg, G. I. (1993) Plasma membrane-dependent activation of the 72-kDa type IV collagenase is prevented by complex formation with TIMP-2. (springer.com)
  • residues
  • Moreover, lysine residues appear to play a crucial role in the protein-protein interaction as binding of plasminogen was inhibited by the lysine analog tranexamic acid as well as increasing ionic strength. (frontiersin.org)
  • Concerning the involvement of specific amino acids in the interaction with plasminogen, lysine residues located at the C-terminus are frequently involved in the binding as reported for various other plasminogen-interacting proteins of Lyme disease spirochetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, binding of plasminogen to the mutated CbiA proteins was not affected, suggesting that lysine residues distant from the C-terminus might be involved in the interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • soluble
  • In order to facilitate diagnosis, researchers have speculated that some markers, such as components of the glomerular basement membrane, cytokines, receptors, and matrix components, as well as their soluble forms and oxidative stress markers, could be potential future diagnostic tools for FSGS (summarized in Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • enzymes
  • The analysis of snake venom has shown that it is a mixture of many toxic proteins and enzymes with diverse and complex pharmacological effects. (scielo.br)
  • membrane
  • Bacterial lipoproteins are a set of membrane proteins with many different functions. (asm.org)
  • The addition of acyl moieties effectively provides a membrane anchor allowing the protein to function effectively in the aqueous environment ( 86 ). (asm.org)
  • lipid
  • Insulin receptor and lipid metabolism pathology in ataxin-2 knock-out mice. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Lipid modification of bacterial proteins facilitates the anchoring of hydrophilic proteins to hydrophobic surfaces through the hydrophobic interaction of the attached acyl groups to the cell wall phospholipids. (asm.org)
  • Lgt is a basic (pK a of ∼10) protein and transfers negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol in particular, as its lipid substrate ( 151 ). (asm.org)
  • sequence
  • The amino acid sequence of laminin receptor 1 is highly conserved through evolution, suggesting a key biological function. (genetex.com)
  • 11 . A polypeptide which comprises a contiguous sequence within SEQ ID NO. 2, wherein said contiguous sequence is at least 8 amino acids in length, and wherein said polypeptide is a functional equivalent of human EDG1 protein. (google.co.uk)
  • The optimal growth temperature of Vibrio marinus is 15 degrees C. Stability studies show that vTIM is an unstable protein with a half-life of only 10 min at 25 degrees C. The vTIM sequence is most closely related to the sequence of Escherichia coli TIM (eTIM) (66% identity), and several unique structural features described for eTIM are also seen in vTIM, but eTIM is considerably more stable. (ac.be)
  • bacterial
  • Further study of this group of bacterial proteins will contribute to a better understanding of their roles and mechanisms of action, supporting their use in the development of countermeasures against bacterial pathogens. (asm.org)
  • plasmin
  • To gain deeper insight into the molecular principles of B. miyamotoi -host interaction, we examined CbiA as a plasmin(ogen) receptor that enables B. miyamotoi to interact with the serine protease plasmin(ogen). (frontiersin.org)
  • The activation of the TGF β precursor is controlled by multiple processes, such as proteolytic enzymatic activity (furins, plasmin, calpain, etc.) but also acid, alkali, and heat-induced proteolysis [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell
  • It has been observed that the level of the laminin receptor transcript is higher in colon carcinoma tissue and lung cancer cell line than their normal counterparts. (genetex.com)
  • As enveloped viruses, the DENVs enter the cells through receptor mediated endocytosis [ 4 - 7 ] and rearrange cell internal membranes to establish specific sites of replication [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Myoepithelial cells contain large amounts of micro-filaments, dense plaques (cell-matrix adherens junctions characteristic of smooth muscle cells) and smooth muscle-specific cytoskeletal and contractile proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study is the first demonstration that human galectin-3 is oligomerized by transglutaminase with, as a consequence, a specific effect of melanoma cell spreading on laminin. (ac.be)
  • Lack of laminin 1 in ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes causes inhomogeneous electrical spreading despite intact differentiation and function. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Due to this broad-ranging functionality, these proteins have a considerable significance in many phenomena, from cellular physiology through cell division and virulence. (asm.org)
  • tissue
  • An uncoupling protein was recently discovered in plant mitochondria and demonstrated to function similarly to the uncoupling protein of brown adipose tissue. (ac.be)
  • The main function of fibroblasts is to maintain the structural integrity of connective tissue by continuously secreting precursors of the extracellular matrix. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are a family of secreted proteins whose primary function is to limit the degradative actions of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during tissue remodeling (1) . (springer.com)
  • Urinary-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator converted reelin to a discrete 310 kDa fragment co-migrating with the major immunoreactive reelin fragment seen in plasma and also detected in brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mutants
  • One reason for the viability of Gram-positive mutants could be that the precursors of some essential lipoproteins have the same functionality as the mature lipoproteins ( 95 , 187 ). (asm.org)
  • downstream
  • In-depth analysis of the GPR97 signaling cascade revealed a possible switch from basal Gαs/cAMP-mediated signal transduction to a Gαi-induced reduction in cAMP levels upon mutation-induced activation of the receptor, in combination with an increase in downstream effectors of Gβγ, such as SRE and NF-κB. (frontiersin.org)
  • family
  • Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. (genetex.com)
  • 15-17 The first part of the review, therefore, will briefly discuss the metalloproteinase-disintegrin (ADAM) family, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, and the intracellular proteinase calpain, followed by a description of their potential receptor substrates on platelets. (ahajournals.org)
  • The biological and physiological functions of TGF β , the founding member of this family, and its receptors are of central importance to human diseases, particularly cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Since then, more than 40 different family members have been identified, including the activin/inhibin subfamily, the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), nodal, myostatin, and the mullerian inhibitory substance (MIS) [ 4 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The α v β 6 receptor is one member of the large family of integrin proteins that are expressed in heterodimeric form on the surface of essentially all cells ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • modulation
  • Upregulation of ACE2 and increased balance of Ang 1-7/Ang II, along with positive modulation of Ang II signaling through AT 2 receptors and Ang 1-7 signaling through Mas receptors, may be an appropriate strategy for improving cognitive function and treating dementia. (hindawi.com)
  • RPSA
  • RPSA antibody [N1Cdetects RPSA protein at cytoplasm on mouse small intestine by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Immunogen
  • 4 . The isolated polynucleotide of claim 3 wherein the functional equivalent is immunologically cross reactive with an antibody raised using said EDG1 protein as an immunogen. (google.co.uk)
  • genomic
  • Characterizing ARDS phenotypes may help to better understand genetic, genomic, and protein risk factors for ARDS, predict the syndrome, identify mechanism-defined subgroups of ARDS, and/or to better target therapy [ 10 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Each of these adhesins is unique due to the recognition of an adhesin-specific receptor, though as a group these adhesins share common genomic organization. (biomedcentral.com)