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  • bromate
  • The additive is called potassium bromate, which is added to flour to strengthen the dough, allow it to rise higher and give the finished bread an appealing white color. (ewg.org)
  • EWG's Food Scores , an online tool to help consumers eat healthier, lists potassium bromate as an ingredient in at least 86 baked goods and other food products * found on supermarket shelves, including well-known brands and products such as Hormel Foods breakfast sandwiches, Weis Kaiser rolls and French toast, and Goya turnover pastry dough. (ewg.org)
  • Regulators in the United States and abroad have reached troubling conclusions about the risks of potassium bromate that you probably don't know about, but should. (ewg.org)
  • In 1999 the International Agency for Research on Cancer determined that potassium bromate is a possible human carcinogen. (ewg.org)
  • 2,3,4,5 The state of California requires food with potassium bromate to carry a warning label. (ewg.org)
  • In tests on lab animals, exposure to potassium bromate increased the incidence of both benign and malignant tumors in the thyroid and peritoneum - the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. (ewg.org)
  • 7 Later research confirmed and expanded these findings, concluding that ingesting potassium bromate resulted in significant increases in cancer of the animals' kidneys, thyroid and other organs. (ewg.org)
  • Potassium bromate also has the potential to disrupt the genetic material within cells. (ewg.org)
  • 9 Upon entering the body, potassium bromate can be transformed into molecules called oxides and radicals. (ewg.org)
  • Scientists have observed such damage in human liver and intestine cells, where exposure to potassium bromate resulted in breaks in DNA strands and chromosomal damage. (ewg.org)
  • 13 The industry claims potassium bromate is theoretically fully converted into potassium bromide, a similar yet non-carcinogenic chemical, during baking. (ewg.org)
  • But testing in the United Kingdom revealed that potassium bromate remains detectable after baking, with six out of six unwrapped breads and seven out of 22 packaged breads containing measurable levels. (ewg.org)
  • California is the only state to have taken any measures to warn residents of the dangers associated with this chemical, placing potassium bromate on its Proposition 65 list, 13 which means that products that contain it must carry a cancer warning on their labels. (ewg.org)
  • Congress must overhaul this broken process in order to truly protect us from potentially cancer-causing chemicals such as potassium bromate. (ewg.org)
  • In light of the evidence that suggests potassium bromate has the potential to be genotoxic and carcinogenic, and the decisions by numerous regulatory authorities based on this evidence, EWG recommends a precautionary approach to consumers: You should avoid food products that contain this chemical. (ewg.org)
  • Check the list and use EWG's Food Scores database and companion app to find foods without potassium bromate. (ewg.org)
  • Like potassium bromate, potassium iodate is occasionally used as a maturing agent in baking. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects of potassium
  • Much of what is known of the protective effects of potassium iodide has come from the measurements of radiation accumulation in the thyroid glands of hundreds of thousands of people in the weeks following the Chernobyl reactor disaster of April 1986, and the therapeutic effects KI achieved in Poland during that time. (faqs.org)
  • The protective effects of potassium iodide last about 24 hours from the time it is ingested. (faqs.org)
  • Iodide
  • Potassium iodide is noteworthy in security because of its ability to block the uptake of radioactive iodine by the body's thyroid gland. (faqs.org)
  • If taken in time following an accidental or deliberate release of radioactive iodine, such as would occur with a leak from a nuclear power plant or the detonation of a bomb containing a radioactive payload, potassium iodide saturates the thyroid with a form of iodine that persists in the gland. (faqs.org)
  • Guidance: Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in radiation Emergencies. (faqs.org)
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Potassium Iodide. (faqs.org)
  • Because iodide can be oxidized to iodine by molecular oxygen under wet conditions, US companies add thiosulfates or other antioxidants to the potassium iodide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approved by the World Health Organization for radiation protection, potassium iodate (KIO3) is an alternative to potassium iodide (KI), which has poor shelf life in hot and humid climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural potassium
  • KCl is useful as a beta radiation source for calibration of radiation monitoring equipment , because natural potassium contains 0.0118% of the isotope 40 K. One kilogram of KCl yields 16350 becquerels of radiation consisting of 89.28% beta and 10.72% gamma with 1.46083 MeV. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbonate
  • In this book, al-Rammah describes first the purification of barud (crude saltpeter mineral) by boiling it with minimal water and using only the hot solution, then the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes ) to remove calcium and magnesium by precipitation of their carbonates from this solution, leaving a solution of purified potassium nitrate, which could then be dried. (wikipedia.org)
  • KN3 is prepared by treating potassium carbonate with hydrazoic acid, which is generated in situ. (wikipedia.org)
  • mineral
  • Found in almost every natural food, especially green leafy ones, potassium is considered a major mineral that is required in somewhat large amounts. (mercola.com)
  • Because potassium helps your heart beat regularly, problems with an irregular heartbeat may be stabilized by eating more foods containing this mineral. (mercola.com)
  • Potassium is a mineral key to many of the body's important functions such as regulating heart rate, smooth muscle contraction, transfer of nutrients through cell membranes, and water balance (works with sodium). (spineuniverse.com)
  • In 1999 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, cleanup of potassium oxides from a NaK metal leak produced an impact-sensitive explosion while saturated with mineral oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Potassium lactate is commonly used in meat and poultry products to extend shelf life and increase food safety as it has a broad antimicrobial action and is effective at inhibiting most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Potassium superoxide is produced by burning molten potassium in an atmosphere of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium ferricyanide is used in many amperometric biosensors as an electron transfer agent replacing an enzyme's natural electron transfer agent such as oxygen as with the enzyme glucose oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium permanganate will decompose into potassium manganate, manganese dioxide and oxygen gas: 2KMnO4 → K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 This reaction is a laboratory method to prepare oxygen, but produces samples of potassium manganate contaminated with MnO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypokalemia
  • People who are potassium deficient may develop hypokalemia, a condition where there is not enough potassium in the blood. (spineuniverse.com)
  • THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS: given special importance as therapeutic agents, but may be dangerous if improperly Rx and admin Utilized for Tx of hypokalemia USES: prevent and treat potassium deficit secondary to diuretic or corticosteroid therapy. (scribd.com)
  • Water
  • Potassium bitartrate can be mixed with an acidic liquid such as lemon juice or white vinegar to make a paste-like cleaning agent for metals such as brass, aluminum or copper, or with water for other cleaning applications such as removing light stains from porcelain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium superoxide is a potent oxidizer, and can produce explosive reactions when combined with a variety of substances, including water, acids, organics, or powdered graphite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common potassium silicate has the formula K2SiO3, samples of which contain varying amounts of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • iodine
  • In other countries, potassium iodate is used as a source for dietary iodine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium iodate may be used to protect against accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid by saturating the body with a stable source of iodine prior to exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gent, Nick (1999), "Evaluation of a scheme for the pre-distribution of stable iodine (potassium iodate) to the civilian population residing within the immediate countermeasures zone of a nuclear submarine construction facility", Journal of Public Health, 21 (4): 2008-10, doi:10.1093/pubmed/21.4.412, PMID 11469363 Pahuja, D.N. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Potassium chlorochromate can be toxic upon ingestion (may cause acute poisoning and kidney damage amongst other complications) or contact with the human skin (may cause eye burns, irritation, allergy, or ulceration), especially if inhalated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decomposition temperatures of the alkali metal azides are: NaN3 (275 °C), KN3 (355 °C), RbN3 (395 °C), CsN3 (390 °C). Like sodium azide, potassium azide is very toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • vinegar
  • Acidic foods and beverages such as fruit juice (citric acid), sparkling drinks (carbonic acid), soft drinks (phosphoric acid), and pickles (vinegar) may be preserved with potassium benzoate. (wikipedia.org)