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  • Development
  • As a result, searching through human and mouse corpuses, we identified numerous bovine homologs, among which 11 to 14% of transcription factors including the gold standard TF as well as novel TF potentially important to gene regulation in ruminant embryo development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • embryogenesis
  • Besides these closely related and biologically relevant species, there is indeed much more knowledge of (i) trophoblast proliferation and differentiation or (ii) embryogenesis in human and mouse species, which provides opportunities for reconstructing proliferation and/or differentiation processes in other mammalian embryos, including ruminants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The necessary knowledge can be obtained partly from (i) stem cell or cancer research to supply useful information on molecular agents or molecular interactions at work in cell proliferation and (ii) mouse embryogenesis to supply useful information on embryo differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • describe
  • Since processes in well-known model organisms have specific features different from those in Bos taurus , the organism under study, a good way to describe gene regulation in ruminant embryos would be a species-specific consideration of closely related species to cattle, sheep and pig. (biomedcentral.com)
  • uterine
  • Results obtained provide evidence that myo-Ins induces cellular pathways involving Akt and show that (a) exposure of preimplantation embryos to myo-Ins increases the number of blastocysts available for uterine transfer and of delivered animals and (b) the developmental patterns of mice obtained from embryos cultured in the presence or absence of myo-Ins, up to three weeks of age, overlap. (hindawi.com)
  • Successful placentation is a key event for fetal development, which commences following embryo implantation into the uterine wall, eliciting decidualization, placentation, and remodeling of blood vessels to provide physiological exchange between embryo-fetus and mother. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is important for uterine receptivity, implantation, placental growth and maternal energy homeostasis in several species, but Lep's function in the pregnant dog has not been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lep and leptin receptor (LepR) gene expression was detected by semi-quantitative real-time PCR in pre-implantation and inter-placental uterine sections (Ut) and in utero-placental compartments (Ut/Pl). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed for Lep and LepR protein and mRNA localization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vitro fertilization
  • Matured metaphase II porcine oocytes were injected with CRISPR Cas9+guide RNAs (Uba52 gRNA) or Cas9 without gRNAs as control, followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture to day 7. (biologists.org)
  • Differentiation
  • Response of EBs to a compound may vary temporally, and determination of their right stage is crucial for applications in directed-differentiation or drug-screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Embedded embryos were then sectioned and stained for markers of trophoblast function and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Positive staining for selected markers including Ki67, MHC class I, NeuN, CD31, vonWillebrand Factor and Vimentin, suggest growth and differentiation of the embryo following embedding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rho-family GTPases (such as RhoA, Rac1, and CDC42) regulate trophectoderm differentiation, cell polarity and E-cadherin Gimatecan expression in cleavage stage embryos and a variety of other cell types . (biotech-angels.com)
  • pathways
  • Although gene arrays have been used before with staged preimplantation embryos and have identified a complicated milieu of signaling pathways [ 6 ], they have not been used to look at differences between the sexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Lep signaling system may be one of the pathways involved in feto-maternal cross-talk, implantation and maintenance of pregnancy, and may have a regulatory role around parturition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cryopreservation
  • For example, most "excess" human IVF embryos in the U.S.A. are destined for cryopreservation or for use in a donor program and are thus unsuitable for any research protocol that might compromise their viability. (springer.com)
  • modulate
  • To this end naturally fertilized embryos were cultured in vitro to blastocyst in the presence or absence of myo-Ins and analyzed for activation of the PKB/Akt pathway, known to modulate proliferation/survival cellular processes. (hindawi.com)
  • cleavage
  • When the first two-cell blastomere to divide does so meridionally (ME embryos), the orientation of the first cleavage is predictive of the orientation and polarity of the embryonic-abembryonic axis. (biologists.org)
  • By contrast, when the earlier of the second cleavage divisions occurs equatorially or obliquely and is followed by a meridional division (EM embryos), the orientation of the first cleavage is predictive of the orientation of the embryonic-abembryonic axis but not its polarity. (biologists.org)
  • In the less common situation (20% of embryos) when two-cell blastomeres undergo either sequential meridional or equatorial/oblique divisions, a relationship between the first cleavage and the embryonic-abembryonic axis is not observed. (biologists.org)
  • placenta
  • 1 ] is that on further study, it became evident that one of the X-linked genes, Rhox5 / Pem (reproductive homeobox 5/placenta and embryos gene), was apparently being expressed in females preferentially from their paternal X chromosome, which is preferentially inactivated in the preimplantation embryo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • primates
  • In contrast, there are no prohibitions on the use of fertilized eggs or embryos of nonhuman primates for research, while the reproductive physiology and embryology of the Old-World nonhuman primates are sufficiently similar to humans that direct extrapolation of concepts is possible. (springer.com)
  • chimaeras
  • but the relative contribution of the two aggregated embryos varies widely among individual adult chimaeras and is difficult to control. (biologists.org)
  • blastomere
  • This study also clarified the relationship between the order of blastomere division from the two- to four-cell stage, and the polarity of this embryonic-abembryonic axis ( Piotrowska and Zernicka-Goetz, 2002 ). (biologists.org)