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  • Development
  • As a result, searching through human and mouse corpuses, we identified numerous bovine homologs, among which 11 to 14% of transcription factors including the gold standard TF as well as novel TF potentially important to gene regulation in ruminant embryo development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mouse
  • Besides these closely related and biologically relevant species, there is indeed much more knowledge of (i) trophoblast proliferation and differentiation or (ii) embryogenesis in human and mouse species, which provides opportunities for reconstructing proliferation and/or differentiation processes in other mammalian embryos, including ruminants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The necessary knowledge can be obtained partly from (i) stem cell or cancer research to supply useful information on molecular agents or molecular interactions at work in cell proliferation and (ii) mouse embryogenesis to supply useful information on embryo differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • elongation
  • They thus stand so far for putative TF acting during bovine embryo elongation, but might be retrieved from a recent RNA sequencing dataset (Mamo et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene
  • Since processes in well-known model organisms have specific features different from those in Bos taurus , the organism under study, a good way to describe gene regulation in ruminant embryos would be a species-specific consideration of closely related species to cattle, sheep and pig. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lineage
  • Expression of chorionic gonadotropin defined by immunohistochemical staining, and secretion of chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone coincident with the appearance of trophoblast outgrowths, supported the conclusion that a trophoblast cell lineage formed from implanted embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this reason, it is important to understand where in vitro -cultured PSCs and their lineage-specified progeny fit into the paradigm of the developing embryo in vivo . (biologists.org)
  • Histological analyses of lineage markers show that Bptf(-/-) embryos implant but fail to establish a functional distal visceral endoderm. (nih.gov)
  • Our approach thus clarifies understanding both of lineage segregation in the early human embryo and of in vitro stem cell identity, and provides an analytical resource for comparative molecular embryology. (biologists.org)
  • In the human embryo, the first lineage segregation becomes apparent at embryonic day (E) 4-5, when the compacted morula undergoes cavitation to initiate blastocyst formation. (biologists.org)
  • mice
  • The effect of 5-azadeoxycytidine on hybrid mice (CBA × C57BL/6)F1 in vitro for 6 h, in the presence of single cell parthenogenetic embryos during the S-phase of the cell cycle has been studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • Results obtained provide evidence that myo-Ins induces cellular pathways involving Akt and show that (a) exposure of preimplantation embryos to myo-Ins increases the number of blastocysts available for uterine transfer and of delivered animals and (b) the developmental patterns of mice obtained from embryos cultured in the presence or absence of myo-Ins, up to three weeks of age, overlap. (hindawi.com)
  • In early female embryos of mice, for example, it is always the X-chromosome inherited from the father that is suppressed, which suggests that the instructions for which X-chromosome to inactivate must have come from the parents. (elifesciences.org)
  • set out to dissect the mechanics of the specialised form of X-chromosome inactivation seen in female embryos of mice, which is known as imprinted X-inactivation. (elifesciences.org)
  • MICRO-ePORE™ was designed for a range of applications including generation of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knock-in mice with large insertions by microinjection into two-cell stage embryos with high viability.7 The MICRO-ePORE™ has delivered accurate microinjection of morpholino oligomers (anti-sense "knockdown") in zebrafish tails. (wpiinc.com)
  • tissues
  • In vivo , PSCs are a transient cell population emerging approximately at embryonic day 3.5 (E3.5) in mouse embryos, and are confined to the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst, which will further differentiate giving rise to all embryonic tissues ( Cockburn and Rossant, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The 3.5-day-old blastocyst-stage mouse embryo consists of two tissues and contains approximately 60 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is not the case in the preimplantation embryo, however, nor in extraembryonic tissues after implantation: in both of these stages the paternal X chromosome exhibits preferential, imprinted, inactivation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Shortly before implantation, the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst gives rise to the primitive endoderm, which will generate the visceral and parietal yolk sacs, and the epiblast, which represents the precursor of all tissues of the body, including the germ line. (biologists.org)
  • B) Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of E5.5, E6.5, and E7.5 mutant embryos show reduced growth of both embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues, the presence of visceral endoderm, and an absence of anterior-posterior asymmetry when compared to controls. (nih.gov)
  • It is not known whether the cells can colonize all the tissues of a human embryo, but it is presumed from their other properties that they are indeed pluripotent cells, and they therefore are regarded as a possible source of differentiated cells for cell therapythe replacement of a patients defective cell type with healthy cells. (genetherapy.me)
  • The visual input was always tremendously important for me and it still gives me enormous pleasure to look down a microscope at embryos and tissues and wonder how they develop. (biologists.com)
  • Only one of these lineages, the epiblast, contributes to the embryo itself, while the other two lineages, the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm, become extra-embryonic tissues. (jci.org)
  • Primate
  • The initiation of primate embryo invasion into the endometrium and the formation of the placenta from trophoblasts, fetal mesenchyme, and vascular components are essential for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms which direct morphogenesis of the chorionic villi, and the interactions between trophectoderm-derived trophoblasts and the fetal mesenchyme to direct these processes during placentation are not well understood due to a dearth of systems to examine and manipulate real-time primate implantation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new MICRO-ePORE™ cell penetrator prototype has been successfully tested in mouse and primate pre-implantation embryos, as well as gene silencing in zebrafish tails. (wpiinc.com)
  • parthenogenetic
  • In the latter case, some parthenogenetic embryos reached the stage of 25-27 pairs of somites and were 2.0-2.5 mm long. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11779183 Paternally expressed imprinted genes (Pegs) were systematically screened by comparing gene expression profiles of parthenogenetic and normal fertilized embryos using an oligonucleotide array. (jove.com)
  • maternal
  • In later postimplantation stages, inactivation is random in the embryo proper (which will give rise to the fetus and resulting animal), that is, there is no preference for whether the maternal or paternal X chromosome is inactivated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is important for uterine receptivity, implantation, placental growth and maternal energy homeostasis in several species, but Lep's function in the pregnant dog has not been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Lep signaling system may be one of the pathways involved in feto-maternal cross-talk, implantation and maintenance of pregnancy, and may have a regulatory role around parturition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we test the role of maternal vs. zygotic Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) protein EED in orchestrating imprinted X-inactivation in mouse embryos. (elifesciences.org)
  • In maternal-null ( Eed m-/- ) but not zygotic-null ( Eed -/- ) early embryos, the maternal X-chromosome ectopically induced Xist and underwent inactivation. (elifesciences.org)
  • This effect was exacerbated in embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic EED ( Eed mz-/- ), suggesting that zygotic EED can also contribute to the onset of imprinted X-inactivation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Xist expression dynamics in Eed m-/- embryos resemble that of early human embryos, which lack oocyte-derived maternal PRC2 and only undergo random X-inactivation. (elifesciences.org)
  • The cascade of epigenetic events leading to imprinted X-inactivation in the early embryo has been well-defined, but the role of maternal EED was yet to be tested. (elifesciences.org)
  • uterine
  • Others use the term embryo only after the conceptus starts implanting into the uterine wall at the end of the 1st week of gestation or becomes fully implanted into the uterine wall at the end of the 2nd week of gestation. (moderntimes.online)
  • placental
  • The understanding of the mechanisms driving the key events of human implantation, particularly those that lead to placental pathologies, remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With a regenerative medicine point of view it would be fascinating to have placental cells growing in cultures, which could be employed for supporting pregnancies during medical conditions like placental ischemia or pre-eclampsia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • zygotic
  • By breeding X GFP Y transgenic males to non-transgenic (XX) females, female progeny could be distinguished at preimplantation stages from male littermates by their green fluorescence, which results from the zygotic expression of the paternally inherited GFP transgene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proliferation
  • Signs of implantation were observed including enlargement of the embryo mass, and invasion and proliferation of trophoblast outgrowths. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To this end naturally fertilized embryos were cultured in vitro to blastocyst in the presence or absence of myo-Ins and analyzed for activation of the PKB/Akt pathway, known to modulate proliferation/survival cellular processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutant embryos at E5.5, E6.5, and E7.5 have significantly reduced staining when compared to controls, suggesting that they have reduced cellular proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • females
  • 1 ] is that on further study, it became evident that one of the X-linked genes, Rhox5 / Pem (reproductive homeobox 5/placenta and embryos gene), was apparently being expressed in females preferentially from their paternal X chromosome, which is preferentially inactivated in the preimplantation embryo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cas9
  • Nuclear morphology studies of embryos injected with Cas9+gRNAs and co-injected with plasmid DNA encoding nuclear localized GFP further supported these observations. (biologists.org)