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  • 2,000
  • The gene that causes lighter skin pigmentation, SLC24A5, was introduced from eastern African to southern African populations just 2,000 years ago. (phys.org)
  • Research To enhance knowledge and understanding of ecosystem dynamics, HMAP sponsors teams of historians, archaeologists, marine ecologists, biologists and fisheries scientists to analyse historical and environmental data relating to the exploitation by humans of marine animal populations over the last 2,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renouf (1989) suggests that between 4000, and 3000 BC it is unlikely that the population of Jersey was less than 2,000, but may have been double this. (wikipedia.org)
  • bird populations
  • And isn't human encroachment the real issue for bird populations, not a few opportunistic cats? (emagazine.com)
  • The Institute for Bird Populations, based in Marin County, California, is a non-profit organization dedicated to studying and monitoring bird populations, and providing land managers and policy makers with information needed to better manage those populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Institute was founded in 1989 by President Dr. David DeSante to develop and coordinate the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Program (MAPS), a network of approximately 500 standardized bird banding stations studying breeding bird populations across North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the publication of Bird Populations, an online, peer-reviewed journal of global avian research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institute scientists (staff list) develop standardized bird monitoring techniques and tools for land managers and researchers studying bird populations, coordinate large-scale networks for monitoring vital rates of birds, conduct original research on the abundance, distribution, and ecology of birds, and convey their findings in scientific papers and reports to public and private land managers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • Populations of indigenous people in southern Africa carry a gene that causes lighter skin, and scientists have now identified the rapid evolution of this gene in recent human history. (phys.org)
  • In previous work , the researchers looked at pigmentation variation in two KhoeSan populations from South Africa by performing a genome-wide association analysis in about 450 individuals. (phys.org)
  • The Black Death in Europe, the arrival of Old World diseases to the Americas, the tsetse fly invasion of the Waterberg Massif in South Africa, and the Great Irish Famine all caused sizable population declines. (wikipedia.org)
  • geographically
  • Furthermore, although geographically isolated populations lose genetic diversity via genetic drift, phonemes are not subject to drift in the same way: within a given geographic radius, languages that are relatively isolated exhibit more variance in number of phonemes than languages with many neighbors. (pnas.org)
  • Smaller population size can also cause deleterious mutations to accumulate A slightly different form of a bottleneck can occur if a small group becomes reproductively (e.g. geographically) separated from the main population, such as through a founder event where for example a few members of a species successfully colonize a new isolated island, or from small captive breeding programs such as animals at a zoo. (wikipedia.org)
  • country's
  • While tribal populations make up only 8 percent of India's population, they account for over a quarter of the country's poorest people. (worldbank.org)
  • Although these groups have seen considerable progress over the years-poverty among tribal groups declined by more than a third between 1983 and 2005 - nearly half the country's Scheduled Tribe population remains in poverty, due to their low starting point. (worldbank.org)
  • Underpopulation" is usually defined as a state in which a country's population has declined too much to support its current economic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • overpopulation
  • It does not refer to carrying capacity, and is not a term in opposition to overpopulation, which deals with the total possible population that can be sustained by available food, water, sanitation and other infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Depending on your world view, some believe, including Catton, that the Earth's population has already overshot its carrying capacity, by both overpopulation and overconsumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • A detailed list of countries and their main figures to compute the Overshoot (overpopulation) index has been computed by The Optimum Population Trust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal trapping Conservation biology Culling Human population planning Hunting Malthusianism Overpopulation in wild animals Sterilization (surgical procedure) Trap-neuter-return for feral cats Wildlife contraceptives Wildlife management Lemoine, Debra (2009-08-03). (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement is to support studies on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) that examine population-based, clinical and applied prevention of disease, including etiology of use, epidemiology of use, potential risks, benefits and impacts on other tobacco use behavior among different populations. (nih.gov)
  • All population projections have inherent uncertainties, especially for years further in the future, because they can be affected by changes in behavior, by new immigration policies, or by other events. (pewsocialtrends.org)
  • This is compounded by the lack of awareness among these populations about the measures needed to protect their health, their distance from medical facilities, the lack of all-weather roads and affordable transportation, insensitive and discriminatory behavior by staff at medical facilities, financial constraints and so on. (worldbank.org)
  • The rationale of the algorithms computing the replicas, which we denote population bootstrap procedures, is to identify a set of statistics { s 1 , … , s k } {\displaystyle \{s_{1},\ldots ,s_{k}\}} exhibiting specific properties, denoting a well behavior, w.r.t. the unknown parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analytic solution is useful in analyzing the behavior of population models. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 1999 model, a severe population bottleneck, or more specifically a full-fledged speciation, occurred among a group of Australopithecina as they transitioned into the species known as Homo erectus two million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the World Factbook, Azerbaijani people make up 90.6% of Azerbaijan's population in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Individuals who carry two copies of the lighter pigmentation gene are 14 percent lighter-skinned than the population average, the researchers said. (phys.org)
  • Researchers concede that efforts to catch and either neuter or euthanize feral cats have proven ineffective given their booming populations, leaving cat owners wondering whether jeopardizing Fluffy's mental health for the sake of saving a few birds is really even worthwhile. (emagazine.com)
  • McKeown had a major influence on many population researchers, such as health economists and Nobel prize winners Robert W. Fogel (1993) and Angus Deaton (2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Cats are a nonnative species," reminds Marra, adding that they often target native species and can transform places that would normally harbor many young birds into "sinks that drain birds from neighboring populations. (emagazine.com)
  • In other words, if a species is considered as made up of a number of different populations, how much of the total variation in the species exists within each population, and how much variation exists among all the populations? (encyclopedia.com)
  • Or are the past and extinct populations completely different from any other population model constructed from living species? (springer.com)
  • Alternatively, invasive species can undergo population bottlenecks through founder events when introduced into their invaded range Population bottlenecks play an important role in conservation biology (see minimum viable population size) and in the context of agriculture (biological and pest control). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another way populations models are useful are when species become endangered. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the study of how the population sizes of species change over time and space. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult population
  • In 2013-2014, 5.5% of the adult population were current users, representing over 13 million people. (nih.gov)
  • Despite a substantial reduction in population mean TC from a high of 6.0 mmol/L in the 1980s to 5.1 mmol/L, this study reports a failure to control hypercholesterolaemia to recommended risk-stratified targets in the Irish adult population. (springer.com)
  • The same is true for the older adult population and those who live with depression, distress, and/or mental illness. (nih.gov)
  • displaystyle
  • They represent a population of specifications of a random vector Θ {\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {\Theta }}} compatible with an observed sample, where the compatibility of its values has the properties of a probability distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • where A = K − P 0 P 0 {\displaystyle A={\frac {K-P_{0}}{P_{0}}}} and P 0 = {\displaystyle P_{0}=} the initial population at time 0. (wikipedia.org)
  • d N d t 1 N = r {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dt}}{\dfrac {1}{N}}=r} Where d N / d t {\displaystyle dN/dt} is the rate of increase of the population, N is the population size, and r is the intrinsic rate of increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostasis is the set point, or carrying capacity, defined as K. d N d T = r N ( 1 − N K ) {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}=rN{\Big (}1-{\dfrac {N}{K}}{\Big )}} where ( 1 − N K ) {\displaystyle {\Big (}1-{\dfrac {N}{K}}{\Big )}} is the density dependence, N is the number in the population, K is the set point for homeostasis and the carrying capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth's population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. (wikipedia.org)
  • geometric
  • This information is used for managing wildlife stocks and setting harvest quotas The population model below can be manipulated to mathematically infer certain properties of geometric populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • We can calculate the doubling time of a geometric population using the equation: Nt+1 = λtNt by exploiting our knowledge of the fact that the population (N) is twice its size (2N) after the doubling time. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Thus the term has nothing to do with the biological aspects of carrying capacity, but is an economic term employed to imply that the transfer payment schemes of some developed countries might fail once the population declines to a certain point. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modeling Biological Populations in Space and Time. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility
  • Fertility is the number of live births in a defined population. (angelfire.com)
  • Religion: most major religions favour family development so very religious populations have a high fertility. (angelfire.com)
  • Since many population parameters are based on life history variables, and vice versa, the assessment of population parameters in the past must be based on an effective evaluation of those key features that influence virtually every aspect of population structure : mortality , fertility , and longevity , to name just a few. (springer.com)
  • In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than 1 indicates that the population of females is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of females is decreasing. (wikipedia.org)
  • census
  • As of today's date, the world's population is estimated by the United States Census Bureau to be 7.595 billion. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Future of Marine Animal Populations (FMAP) project was one of the core projects of the international Census of Marine Life (2000-2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ethnic composition of the population according to the 2009 population census: 91.6% of the population in the Republic of Azerbaijan are Azerbaijanis. (wikipedia.org)
  • He suggests that a 1685 housing census implied a population of 16,200 and describes a manuscript copy of a 1737 census in the University of Cambridge library, which combined with other evidence led him to suggest a population of 18,400 in 1737. (wikipedia.org)
  • Floating population is a terminology used to describe a group of people who reside in a given population for a certain amount of time and for various reasons, but are not generally considered part of the official census count. (wikipedia.org)
  • A population is usually broken down into two categories-the residents, who permanently stay in an area for a considerable amount of time and are part of the official population count, and the floating types, who are in the area but do not live there permanently and are not considered part of the official census count. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irish
  • An expatriate Irish population in any country other than Ireland or Northern Ireland is generally considered to be Irish emigrants and their descendants, at least to the extent that the people involved are aware of their Irish heritage and willing to acknowledge it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main article Irish diaspora contains details of most expatriate Irish populations, and provides links to main articles about many of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The total population of the continent of Europe (including Russia and other non-EU countries) peaked around the year 2000 and has been falling since 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • The population may have fallen to about 500 in the middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BC). (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • The nation's elderly population will more than double in size from 2005 through 2050, as the baby boom generation enters the traditional retirement years. (pewsocialtrends.org)
  • The aim of this study is to document the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults aged 50-79 years in Ireland and apply clinical guideline targets [ 9 ] to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia in a subgroup aged 50-64 years according to their absolute risk of CVD. (springer.com)
  • But the fact that feral cat populations have gotten so large in recent years makes the problem that much more vexing. (emagazine.com)
  • How has this affected the approach to population health management in the last five years? (wired.com)
  • This was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, and 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • The controversial Toba catastrophe theory, presented in the late 1990s to early 2000s, suggested that a bottleneck of the human population occurred c. 70,000 years ago, proposing that the human population was reduced to perhaps 10,000-30,000 individuals when the Toba supervolcano in Indonesia erupted and triggered a major environmental change. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 1851 the population declined for 70 years before recovering such that in 1951 it was virtually the same as 100 years earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last 100 years have seen a massive fourfold increase in the population, due to medical advances, lower mortality rates, and an increase in agricultural productivity made possible by the Green Revolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latino
  • Similarly, the Hispanic/Latino population can be identified only by a common language, and the African American population by their origin from the African continent. (nih.gov)
  • parameters
  • Other life history parameters of extinct populations, however, such as life expectancy , age at maturation and age at weaning may be retrievable. (springer.com)
  • While there are many useful variables of past population structure that can be analyzed, most social/cultural parameters (see Layton et al. (springer.com)
  • By plugging parameters into the expression of the questioned distribution law, we bootstrap entire populations of random variables compatible with the observed sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecological population modeling is concerned with the changes in parameters such as population size and age distribution within a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • But large Azerbaijani populations can be found in central Iran due to internal migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unusually for a small island Jersey has been characterised by large scale inward and outward migration and significant changes in the total population over relatively short periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • statistical
  • According to a report by Statistical Office of Azerbaijan, in 2009, out of the total population of 8,922,400 million people in Azerbaijan and there were 8,172,800 million Azeri living in Azerbaijan Azerbaijanis of Dagestan are Azerbaijani branch of the indigenous peoples of Dagestan Republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • total
  • The number of working-age Americans and children will grow more slowly than the elderly population, and will shrink as a share of the total population. (pewsocialtrends.org)
  • According to a report by Ethnologue, in 2013, out of the total population of 70,496,000 million people in Iran there were 15.5 million Azerbaijani living in Iran(Above to 20% of the total population). (wikipedia.org)
  • which makes them the region's sixth largest ethnic group and 4.5% of its total population. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, Kvemo Kartli province of Georgia had the following ethnic makeup of 497,530 total population, and 45.1% are Azerbaijanis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A militia roll in 1617 recorded 2,675 men which Nicolle extrapolated to a total population of 9,900-10,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Société Jersiaise Library includes a single sheet of paper giving the population of each parish and a total population in 1770 of 19,788 and in 1788 of 20,025. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approach
  • This is my vision of population health - where data/analytics, medical evidence and care coordination come together to optimally provide care, information, and a personalized approach to a large group of patients. (wired.com)
  • increase
  • If current trends continue, the population of the United States will rise to 438 million in 2050, from 296 million in 2005, and 82% of the increase will be due to immigrants arriving from 2005 to 2050 and their U.S.-born descendants, according to new projections developed by the Pew Research Center. (pewsocialtrends.org)
  • The common thread connecting these specific populations is an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the smaller population size after a bottleneck event, the chances of inbreeding and genetic homogeneity increase, leading to the potential for inbreeding depression to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • while increased population or consumption per head would increase it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is therefore the theoretical maximum rate of increase of a population per individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • overshoot
  • Since the dire predictions of coming population overshoot in the 1960s and 70s, and many other social changes, more couples in many countries have tended to choose to have fewer children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eradication of disease can trigger overshoot when a population suddenly exceeds the land's carrying capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • the remaining percentage is its overshoot population. (wikipedia.org)
  • size
  • Note that the accuracy with which a parameter distribution law of populations compatible with a sample is obtained is not a function of the sample size. (wikipedia.org)
  • A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide). (wikipedia.org)
  • self-published source] As a consequence of such population size reductions and the loss of genetic variation, the robustness of the population is reduced and its ability to adapt to and survive selecting environmental changes, like climate change or a shift in available resources, is reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • defined by ecologists as the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In each generation there is an effective population size denoted as Ne which constitutes the number of individuals in the population that are able to reproduce and will reproduce in any reproductive generation in concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the population model below it is assumed that N is the effective population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nt+1 = (1 + R)Nt 1 + R = λ Nt+1 = λNt Therefore: Nt+1 = λtNt The doubling time of a population is the time required for the population to grow to twice its size. (wikipedia.org)
  • older adults
  • This study aims to describe the distribution of serum cholesterol in a community living population of older adults in Ireland and to examine the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia according to CVD risk status. (springer.com)
  • dominant
  • The classification of specific populations is defined by the dominant culture in the United States and our federal government. (nih.gov)