• Population-based active surveillance can complement routine passive sentinel surveillance systems by providing important public health data and insights into the complex epidemiology of influenza. (who.int)
  • Maiden M. C. J. and Feavers I. M. (1995) Population genetics and global epidemiology of the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis , in Population Genetics of Bacteria (Baumberg S., Young J. P. W., Wellington E. M. H., and Saunders J. R., eds. (springer.com)
  • Data for the current study was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database provided by the National Cancer Institute between 1973 and 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Information on the epidemiology of HPE is limited, both because few population-based studies have been reported, and because small Studies must observe a greater number of years in order to accumulate sufficient numbers of births for a reliable estimate. (diva-portal.org)
  • To further investigate the epidemiology of Q fever in Cyprus, we conducted the current study by establishing active surveillance of Q fever, to detect clinical cases in real time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4. Illustrate how descriptive epidemiology can be used to quantify population disease burden and support surveillance. (uwo.ca)
  • Waheed A, Cason F D (December 05, 2019) Adjuvant Radiation Survival Benefits in Patients with Stage 1B Rectal Cancer: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result Database (1973-2010). (cureus.com)
  • Demographic and clinical data on 4,054 Stage 1B rectal cancer patients were abstracted from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database (1973-2010). (cureus.com)
  • Regional Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients Following State-Mandated Active Surveillance. (rush.edu)
  • Continued surveillance will be important to monitor the epidemiology of candidemia and to detect emergence of resistance to azoles. (oup.com)
  • The so called '2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems' aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. (arctichealth.org)
  • Crude prevalence estimates of equivocal and seropositive results were calculated and further adjusted accounting for clustered sampling and standardized for age, sex and population per province, according to the Belgian population structure in 2014. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data do not suggest large differences in total prevalence of HPE among the studied Populations that would be useful to generate etiological hypotheses. (diva-portal.org)
  • While HIV prevalence may remain an important surveillance indicator, it will increasingly confound the magnitude of the epidemic and the success in providing treatment. (upenn.edu)
  • In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. (bmj.com)
  • We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. (bmj.com)
  • HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. (bmj.com)
  • Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. (bmj.com)
  • HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. (bmj.com)
  • In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. (bmj.com)
  • In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. (bmj.com)
  • 1 In countries with generalised HIV epidemics, defined by UNAIDS and the World Health Organization as countries where adult prevalence is firmly established in the general population and transmission occurs mostly through heterosexual sex, 2 annual HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending public-sector antenatal clinics has over time become the primary source of data on the spread of HIV. (bmj.com)
  • 4 While national population-based surveys provide better coverage of the general population, sentinel surveillance provide important information on prevalence trends over time. (bmj.com)
  • To describe patterns, sources and consequences of bias in antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV prevalence estimates in a high contraceptive prevalence population. (nih.gov)
  • As in high fertility populations, HIV prevalence is higher in pregnant women at young ages and lower at older ages but the crossover point occurs later due to delayed sexual activity. (nih.gov)
  • ANC estimates understate female HIV prevalence in this low fertility population but, here, the primary cause is not selection of pregnant women. (nih.gov)
  • outline ethical issues of "improving" surveillance through the use of biometric identification (i.e. fingerprints, iris scanning) with a specific focus on hyper-criminalized communities who also are communities that have high prevalence of HIV-e.g., sex workers and people who inject drugs. (hivlawandpolicy.org)
  • The sentinel surveillance method (HIV prevalence: antenatal clinic 3%, STI clinic 22.8%, female sex workers 12.8%) led to an estimate of 112635 (4.38%) people with HIV, 15-49 years old, in Guntur district, which was 2.5 times the 45942 (1.79%) estimate based on our population-based study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In regions of high cost, prevalence could in fact be average, or better, meaning this high cost exists due to population density and the frequency of a health related need. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Some companies or agencies like to add such measures as prevalence or incidence to their metrics for the population under review, trying to combine together two opposing ideologies- trying to make people healthier and trying to reduce financial losses thereby increasing corporate income. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends passive health-provider based surveillance, or "sentinel surveillance", for influenza-like illness (ILI) 4 because it is simple and calls for standardized methods costing relatively little that can be implemented throughout the world. (who.int)
  • OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. (arctichealth.org)
  • In recognition of the importance of the multi-disciplinary approach necessary to establish these insights, this section contains chapters ranging from outbreak management through surveillance and isolate characterization techniques to phylogenetic methods. (springer.com)
  • First, we argue that antibody-based methods provide a unique opportunity to augment and integrate surveillance across diverse global health initiatives. (cdc.gov)
  • Serological surveillance, based on the measurement of the presence of specific antibodies in a given population, can be used in addition to traditional and routine disease surveillance methods. (springer.com)
  • Methods: We use data for females aged 15-49 from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (1993-2013). (diva-portal.org)
  • METHODS: We collected data from 2000 through 2004 from 24 of the 46 Birth Defects Registry Members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. (diva-portal.org)
  • Methods -Colonoscopic surveillance in all patients with UC who had died from colorectal cancer after 1975 was compared with that in controls matched for age, sex, extent, and duration of the disease. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Two separate national surveillance studies were conducted on CZS and severe microcephaly using the well-established Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program from 2016 to 2019. (bmj.com)
  • This article highlights methods of EHR-based surveillance of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and describes a model of population-level EHR-based surveillance of CHD risk factors that is being used in the Heart of New Ulm (HONU) project, an ongoing 10-year study designed to reduce the rate of myocardial infarctions (MIs) in a rural area of southwestern Minnesota. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods Population-based mortality follow-back study via Sentinel Networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. (bmj.com)
  • The health care reform has taken precedence over other research activities, and the Institute is anticipating changes to population health surveillance methods. (uwo.ca)
  • The Institute elected a new Director General in the fall of 2018 who will influence decisions about which population surveillance data collection methods are used. (uwo.ca)
  • 1. Compare alternative methods for collecting population health data using knowledge of study designs to analyze strengths and inherent sources of bias for each method. (uwo.ca)
  • Methods: Cases of elective cervical cerclage were matched for maternal age, ethnic group, previous cervical surgery, previous second trimester loss and early preterm delivery to women undergoing serial ultrasound surveillance of cervical length. (afar.info)
  • Before its widespread adoption for surveillance purposes, there is a need to standardise DNA extraction methods, recording and reporting nomenclature, and data interpretation. (up.ac.za)
  • In order to insure timely disease intervention for optimal animal health, surveillance methods and sampling options need to be readily available. (iastate.edu)
  • In order to understand population status from a collection of individual samples, diagnostic and sampling methods require evaluation. (iastate.edu)
  • In continuation of the study of disease surveillance methods, the objective of the first research paper (Chapter 2) was to evaluate different sample collection techniques for the early detection Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in a boar stud population based in individual sampling techniques. (iastate.edu)
  • Combined with a proficient and reasonably well-equipped laboratory, passive ILI surveillance can provide information on seasonal trends, give early indication of increased disease incidence and lead to typing of circulating influenza viruses, including variant strains considered for inclusion in future vaccines against novel influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. (who.int)
  • Age- and sex-specific incidence of AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates per 100,000 population, Calgary Health Region, 2000-2003. (nih.gov)
  • A case study is provided of spatiotemporal modeling of human tularemia incidence and rodent population data from Finnish health care districts during years 1995-2012. (springer.com)
  • We theoretically analyze the HCC surveillance problem, characterize when the surveillance policies should be adapted to populations with different disease progression rates, and quantify the trade-off between decreasing HCC incidence and increasing treatment outcomes. (ssrn.com)
  • "CDC has created an HIV incidence surveillance system in selected areas of the United States as a component of its national human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) reporting system.1 The purpose of the new system. (natap.org)
  • comprehensive surveillance systems are essential for HIV incidence estimation. (natap.org)
  • All states are now implementing confidential, name-based HIV surveillance, and national data on HIV diagnoses and incidence likely will continue to improve. (natap.org)
  • CDC has created an HIV incidence surveillance system in selected areas of the United States as a component of its national human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) reporting system.1 The purpose of the new system is to estimate the number of new HIV infections occurring each year in the United States. (natap.org)
  • The new incidence data will help guide local, state, and national intervention measures tailored to those populations at greatest risk for HIV infection. (natap.org)
  • The ability to distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection using a serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS)3-4 enabled development of the new national HIV incidence surveillance system and integration with the established national HIV/AIDS reporting system.1 HIV surveillance data, testing and treatment history, and STARHS results are now used to estimate HIV incidence using a stratified extrapolation approach. (natap.org)
  • The human incidence rate was estimated at 1.2 per 100,000 population per year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sensitivity of AFP surveillance to detect serotype 1 poliovirus infection in a district and its neighbours per month was on average 30.0% (95% CI 24.8-35.8) and increased with the incidence of poliomyelitis cases. (springer.com)
  • EHR disease detection algorithms combined laboratory reports, diagnosis codes, and medication orders to identify cases and, in the case of Lyme disease, found incidence rates 4-7 times higher than those from traditional surveillance. (populationmedicine.org)
  • The average annual incidence of candidemia at both sites was 8 per 100,000 population. (oup.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems. (arctichealth.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Geographic atrophy is the predominant type of AMD in Iceland, and the ratio of GA to neovascular AMD is higher than in racially similar populations. (arctichealth.org)
  • Little is known about costs related to the surveillance of patients that have undergone curative resection of colorectal cancer. (lse.ac.uk)
  • For France, the surveillance cost represented 4.4% of the cost of colorectal cancer management. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Is colonoscopic surveillance reducing colorectal cancer mortality in ulcerative colitis? (bmj.com)
  • Background -Colonoscopic surveillance is a standard procedure in many patients with long standing, extensive ulcerative colitis (UC), in order to avoid death from colorectal cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Aims -To evaluate the association between colonoscopic surveillance and colorectal cancer mortality in patients with UC. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion -Colonoscopic surveillance may be associated with a decreased risk of death from colorectal cancer in patients with long standing UC. (bmj.com)
  • 16-18 In order to evaluate the impact of colonoscopic surveillance on colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality in patients with UC, a nested case control study was performed using observational data from a large population based cohort of patients with UC. (bmj.com)
  • Adenoma detection rate metrics in colorectal cancer surveillance colonoscopy. (rush.edu)
  • Surveillance involves testing people who have previously had colorectal cancer or polyps. (bowelandkeyholeclinic.com)
  • HCC surveillance facilitates diagnosis at a stage of disease when curative treatments are effective, and is associated with reduced mortality. (mja.com.au)
  • Based on a rigorous compilation of mortality data over two decades, this paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiological transition in a rural South African population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We estimate overall and cause-specific hazards of death as functions of sex, age and time period from mortality data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System and conduct statistical tests of changes and differentials to assess the progression of the epidemiological transition over the period 1993-2013. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From the early 1990s until 2007 the population experienced a reversal in its epidemiological transition, driven mostly by increased HIV/AIDS and TB related mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over time, mortality and disease patterns in human populations transition from very high and fluctuating mortality concentrated at younger ages and largely caused by infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies to relatively stable low mortality concentrated at older ages and largely caused by non-communicable diseases and injuries - the 'epidemiological transition' [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Introduction : Data on diabetes morbidity and mortality and the quality of care among U.S. minority populations are necessary to assess progress toward eliminating racial/ethnic disparities and to design and implement effective interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Possible VAPs missed by VAE surveillance are associated with lower mortality rates than VAEs and have similar outcomes whether treated with ≤3 days of antibiotics or more conventional courses, suggesting VAE focuses surveillance on severe events. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Immediately a system of surveillance of morbidity and mortality from malaria was set up. (msf.org)
  • Little is known of the empirical basis for mortality statistics in China, which accounts for roughly one-fifth of the world's population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Ministry of Health introduced the Disease Surveillance Point System in 1980, to generate cause specific mortality statistics from a nationally representative sample of sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, such sample based mortality registration systems hold much promise as models for rapidly improving knowledge about levels and causes of mortality in other low-income populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We focus on vital registration because we consider it as the 'gold standard' for mortality statistics, since it provides population level data on causes of death on an annual basis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, censuses and annual population change surveys do not provide routine information on causes of death, retrospective surveys could be affected by recall bias, and the child mortality surveillance system does not inform about causes of death or adult mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The geographic scope of NCD as an important population heath issue, and causing significant premature mortality, now covers most middle income countries, and some high income and upper low income countries, with both significant increases and decreases in premature mortality from various NCDs over the 20th Century, and to the present time. (edu.au)
  • This provides essential strategic information needed for design, implementation and evaluation of effective and cost-effective interventions at a population level to reduce morbidity and premature mortality from these illnesses. (edu.au)
  • The research focus is on tracking trends in NCD risk factors and premature mortality (by cause) at a population level, determining the effects of NCD premature mortality on trends in overall mortality and life expectancy, relating changes in risk factors to changes in mortality, and modelling likely effects of various types of population interventions on premature mortality and morbidity. (edu.au)
  • Abstract Currently about 160 population-based cancer registries (CRs) in Europe have extensive experience in generating valid information on variation in cancer risk and survival with time and place. (eur.nl)
  • Another major limitation of passive surveillance is the lack of a precise population denominator from which to calculate attack rates and disease burden without resorting to additional studies, especially in developing countries, where accurate data on demographics and health service usage are rarely available. (who.int)
  • The main advantage of population-based influenza surveillance is that it provides the data needed to determine the population at risk of infection and to calculate from it accurate attack rates and disease burden. (who.int)
  • The objectives of ANISA are to establish a comprehensive surveillance system for registering newborns in study catchment areas and collecting data on bacterial and viral etiology and associated risk factors for infections among young infants aged 0-59 days. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The data generated from this surveillance will help guide evidence-based decision making to improve health care in similar settings. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To date, population exposure to air pollutants has been assessed using air monitoring data from fixed atmospheric monitoring stations, atmospheric dispersion modeling, or spatial interpolation techniques for pollutant concentrations. (mdpi.com)
  • Because limited population-based, laboratory-confirmed, active surveillance data on severe rotavirus existed, 8 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) undertook such an effort. (aappublications.org)
  • To this end, we develop a spatiotemporal joint modeling framework to integrate human case data and animal host data to offer a modeling alternative for combining multiple surveillance data streams in a novel way. (springer.com)
  • A combination of data obtained by classical epidemiological techniques with insights gained from the analysis of the population biology of Neisseria meningitidis have proved to be critical in understanding the spread of menin-gococcal disease. (springer.com)
  • The potential to combine public health and environmental surveillance data with innovations in machine learning, statistical modeling, and data visualization has contributed to an emerging vision of precision public health, the idea that global health programs should use high-resolution data to guide interventions and direct scarce resources to those who would benefit most ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, we draw on innovations in laboratory and data science to suggest key ingredients for an integrated serologic surveillance (serosurveillance) platform. (cdc.gov)
  • Seroprevalence studies within risk groups or risk areas in Belgium could provide a useful alternative approach to complement routine surveillance data of Lyme borreliosis. (springer.com)
  • CDC conducted a more detailed analysis of data from the new surveillance system. (natap.org)
  • Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. (bmj.com)
  • HIV surveillance in Africa relies on data from pregnant women attending ANCs. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of parallel cross-sectional population and antenatal survey data from rural Zimbabwe, where 60% of women are recent contraceptive users. (nih.gov)
  • This offers a major advantage for epidemiological researchers who have difficulty collecting community-wide data in areas beyond the reach of existing surveillance systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the population level, surveillance of CHD events is sometimes performed using aggregated administrative data. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The value of population-based studies of quality of oncologic care and mass screening and the flawless reputation with regard to data protection of intensively used CRs in the northwest of Europe offered a sharp contrast, although they also follow the 1995 EU guideline on data protection. (eur.nl)
  • The Health Monitoring Unit at the Institute fears that the Director General will decide that all surveillance data will be collected using administrative patient registries with the consequent elimination of population health surveys. (uwo.ca)
  • The team responsible for the 2017 National FinHealth population health survey must determine how they can advocate for the continued use of survey data in population health surveillance. (uwo.ca)
  • 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages associated with alternative sources of population health data? (uwo.ca)
  • This study provides trend data for vulnerable women in Hargeisa, by establishing a third data point for HIV surveillance with the same population, over nine years. (iom.int)
  • Populations of wild vertebrates living in southern polar areas are increasingly the subject of threats from infectious diseases, which can add to other environmental threats, and it is becoming critical to establish baseline data and sound understanding of the dynamics of host-parasite interactions in these systems. (institut-polaire.fr)
  • Unfortunately, however, public health administrators do not use these categories to assess the safety of using surveillance to measure data points in certain communities. (hivlawandpolicy.org)
  • Further work is needed to better define the clinical significance of VAPs missed by VAE surveillance, to rigorously evaluate the impact of an optimized VAE prevention bundle on VAEs and other outcomes, and to weigh whether these additional data provide adequate evidence to support mandating VAE surveillance and prevention. (populationmedicine.org)
  • A wide variety of EHR data is used in infectious disease surveillance. (populationmedicine.org)
  • As public health infrastructure and investment allow health departments to establish closer relationships with healthcare providers, EHR data use in public health surveillance activities should continue to increase. (populationmedicine.org)
  • More efforts in epidemiological and laboratory early screening and surveillance of highly pathogenic germs/microbes, and confirmation of asymptomatic and syndromic cases amongst suspected Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, local vulnerable populations and expatriate workers is vital in generating reliable data and data sharing platform for timely risk communication and tourist information update, appropriate immunization campaigns or safe and efficacious care delivery implementation. (bvsalud.org)
  • It suggests, however, given the significant estate tax considerations that surround the timing of a death, that this is an issue that calls for a registry with ongoing " Big Data " style surveillance. (blogspot.com)
  • The Compensation Research Database (CRD) established at the Institute for Safety Compensation and Recovery Research at Monash University, holds over 20 years of population-based data for transport and workplace injury in the state of Victoria, Australia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Variations in the population size classes corresponded significantly to the ambient water temperature explaining ~70% variation of the data observed on the population abundance of guppy. (scitechnol.com)
  • Significant differences in the composition of the macro invertebrates (prospective prey) and the guppy population was observed, that could be represented through a Principal component analysis which explained for more than 60% variations of the data obtained on the relative abundance of the representative members of the aquatic community. (scitechnol.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden among adults in India is estimated officially by direct extrapolation of annual sentinel surveillance data from public-sector antenatal and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and some high-risk groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We calculated the number of people with HIV in Guntur district based on these data, compared it with the estimate using the sentinel surveillance data and method, and analysed health services use data to understand the differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. (bmj.com)
  • In the fields of demographics and public health, a demographic surveillance system (DSS), also called a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS), gathers longitudinal health and demographic data for a dynamic cohort of the total population in a specified geographic area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tracking population migration is particularly important for understanding of HDSS data. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are other demographic and health data gathering programs similar to DSS that are not part of INDEPTH, such as the Sample Registration system in India and the Disease Surveillance Points system in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should Data from Demographic Surveillance Systems Be Made More Widely Available to Researchers? (wikipedia.org)
  • BND) transfers "massive amounts of intercepted data to the NSA", while Swedish Television revealed the National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) provided the NSA with data from its cable collection, under a secret treaty signed in 1954 for bilateral cooperation on surveillance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveillance for chronic kidney disease (CKD) using nationally representative samples of the US population is central in providing information about the magnitude and trends in CKD burden that will guide disease management and prevention planning for clinicians and public health authorities. (nih.gov)
  • Concerns about the limitations associated with antenatal clinic surveillance have in recent years led to an increase in the number of countries conducting large national population-based surveys in which HIV testing has been included. (bmj.com)
  • These surveys are geographically more representative than antenatal clinic surveillance and include samples from urban and rural areas, men and women and different age groups. (bmj.com)
  • Eighty-one seronegative humans and 239 seronegative animals from both villages participated in the first phase surveillance period of Q fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During the second phase of surveillance, 82 humans, 100 goats, and 76 sheep were considered suspected cases of Q fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I say, "appear to be," because no good, population-based study had been carried out to date. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In this study, the latest trends in published papers on the assessment of population exposure to air pollution were reviewed. (mdpi.com)
  • Subsequently, this study proposes a methodology that will enable policymakers to develop an environmental health surveillance system that evaluates the distribution of air pollution exposure for a population within a target area and establish countermeasures based on advanced exposure assessment. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP)-based framework to systematically analyze a rich set of policies and determine the optimal HCC surveillance policies with the maximum societal net benefit. (ssrn.com)
  • Prospective population-based cohort study of patients newly diagnosed with HCC in seven tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, 1 July 2012 - 30 June 2013. (mja.com.au)
  • DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study. (arctichealth.org)
  • The aim of this study was to calculate the observed surveillance costs for 385 patients followed-up over a 3-year period, to estimate surveillance costs if French guidelines are respected, and to identify the determinants related to surveillance costs to derive a global estimation for France, using a linear mixed model. (lse.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this study was to create a nomogram model integrating clinical and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI)-based variables to predict prostate cancer upgrading in a population of active surveillance (AS) patients. (ovid.com)
  • In the second phase of the study, active surveillance for one year was conducted in the entire Cyprus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main objectives of this study were to conduct active surveillance of Q fever, initially in "high risk" regions of Cyprus (VIL1 and VIL2) and afterwards in the entire human and animal population of Cyprus, to detect acute clinical cases of the disease and assess the pathogenicity of C. burnetii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The overall aim of this study was to assess if the small number of reported acute clinical cases of Q fever in the local population of Cyprus, despite the high seroprevalence (52.7%) identified in previous studies, is due to under diagnosis of Q fever or to under reporting of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients -A population based, nested case control study comprising 142 patients with a definite UC diagnosis, derived from a study population of 4664 patients with UC, was conducted. (bmj.com)
  • The study population consisted of all patients with UC diagnosed in Stockholm County between 1955 and 1984 19 and in the Uppsala Health Care Region between 1965 and 1983, 20 who were 10 years of age or more at the time of UC diagnosis and had at least five years duration of disease since diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • Populations of vertebrates breeding in colonies are especially important to study in those respects because they are distributed in very discrete units among and within which the transmission of infectious agents can be affected by various processes and can lead to disease outbreaks than can affect hundreds to thousands of individuals at the same time. (institut-polaire.fr)
  • We conducted a prospective, population-based study in one community to examine the frequency of recovery of uropathogenic E. coli genotypes from retail meat samples. (asm.org)
  • Occurrence of shigellosis in the young and elderly in rural China: results of a 12-month population-based surveillance study. (tropmedres.ac)
  • In 2002, population- and treatment center-based surveillance was used to study the disease burden of shigellosis in rural Hebei Province in the People's Republic of China. (tropmedres.ac)
  • The validity of these extrapolations has not been systematically examined with a large sample population-based study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new Active surveillance was not implemented according to published protocols in 73.5% of men diagnosed with low risk prostate cancer in this Victorian cohort study. (mja.com.au)
  • Studies of Quality of Life and overall population health often never become a part of the study. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Design Population-based cross-sectional study using a complex survey sampling design. (bmj.com)
  • In the Calgary Health Region during 2000-2003, prospective, active, population-based laboratory surveillance for all cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates was performed. (nih.gov)
  • This surveillance system establishes baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden and allows for the prospective monitoring of rotavirus vaccination impact. (aappublications.org)
  • This surveillance is needed to assess the effectiveness of vaccination through prospective, direct monitoring of the burden of disease caused by rotavirus and the genotypes of circulating rotavirus strains. (aappublications.org)
  • A 1-y prospective population-based survey of Lyme borreliosis was conducted in southern Sweden between 1992 and 1993. (arctichealth.org)
  • We conducted prospective, active population-based surveillance for candidemia (defined as any Candida species isolated from blood) in Atlanta and San Francisco (total population, 5.34 million) during 1992-1993. (oup.com)
  • That is, it investigates how the gaze of these devices is fixed on surveilling whole populations and governing by numbers. (open.ac.uk)
  • Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Describing and understanding factors affecting the distribution and circulation of infectious agents in animal populations is important for basic and applied reasons. (institut-polaire.fr)
  • Swine disease surveillance is of great importance to the swine industry in order to raise and provide healthy animal populations. (iastate.edu)
  • These researchers also explain what efforts to track these diseases among people, and the movement of the pathogens in the environment, reveal about how infection moves from animals to people, especially among vulnerable populations. (nap.edu)
  • Tetanus immunity among women aged 15 to 39 years in Cambodia: a national population-based serosurvey, 2012. (cdc.gov)
  • In this perspective, we encourage an integrated approach to surveillance of population immunity and infectious disease transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Facility-based sentinel surveillance of HIV has been recommended for monitoring the HIV epidemic since the mid-1980s, mainly because of easy access to people attending public health facilities. (bmj.com)
  • Both sentinel surveillance and population-based surveys have strengths and weaknesses, but taken together provide complementary information and can provide a clearer picture of both overall trends and geographical distribution of HIV in a country. (bmj.com)
  • Of women who had become pregnant during the past 2 years, 21.1% had used antenatal care in large public-sector hospitals participating in sentinel surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the factors associated with survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the effect of HCC surveillance on survival. (mja.com.au)
  • Given the major expense and expertise required for large, traditional epidemiological surveillance options and the fact that EHRs are becoming more common, there is great potential to use a new paradigm for population-level surveillance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Manna B, Banerjee S, Aditya G (2016) Population Surveillance of Poecilia reticulata in Kolkata, India: Implications in Mosquito Regulation. (scitechnol.com)
  • Figure 5-1 in particular highlighted the relevant partners that are critical to the effort of advancing population health objectives, including the community, other government agencies, the education sector, nonprofit organizations, the media, employers and businesses, and the clinical care system. (nap.edu)
  • To assess exposure of an entire population of a community in a highly polluted area, pollutant concentrations in microenvironments and population time-activity patterns are required. (mdpi.com)
  • Infectious disease surveillance aims to assess the size of a health problem (disease burden), to identify high risk groups and/or areas to target interventions, to monitor trends and to detect outbreaks, in order to guide public health practice. (springer.com)
  • The project aims to 1) determine the extent to which current systems meet user requirements 2) assess utility and reliability of these systems specifically for active populations and 3) develop recommendations for future systems development and improved user application. (monash.edu)
  • RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. (arctichealth.org)
  • The distribution of new HIV infections in 2006 demonstrates that, more than 25 years after the first report of AIDS, the disease continues to affect the MSM population more than any other in the United States. (natap.org)
  • The table below summarizes the population under surveillance and isolate collection for each pathogen and state as of January 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • Electronic Health Record Use in Public Health Infectious Disease Surveillance, USA, 2018-2019. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Passive sentinel influenza surveillance, however, only detects symptomatic cases severe enough to prompt the patient to seek health care and could easily miss mild cases in an incipient pandemic and delay the recognition of an outbreak. (who.int)
  • As part of the National Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs in Pakistan, an integrated, systematic, and sustainable population-based NCD surveillance system is being established, and will be maintained and expanded over time. (nih.gov)
  • Lee, C. Environmental Health Surveillance System for a Population Using Advanced Exposure Assessment. (mdpi.com)
  • Yang W, Park J, Cho M, Lee C, Lee J, Lee C. Environmental Health Surveillance System for a Population Using Advanced Exposure Assessment. (mdpi.com)
  • Population-based, laboratory-confirmed rotavirus surveillance in the final rotavirus season before implementation of the US rotavirus vaccine program indicated a considerable burden of disease on the US health care system. (aappublications.org)
  • We retrospectively characterized HCC surveillance among cirrhosis patients followed between January 2010 and December 2012 at an integrated health care delivery system in Washington state. (ovid.com)
  • As ES for poliovirus is expanded, it will be important to identify factors associated with variation in site sensitivity, leading to improved site selection and surveillance system performance. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 5 a very large national survey, provides national and state-level estimates on behavioral risk factors such as smoking, but it does not permit reliable estimates of such risk factors at smaller geographical levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The UK Obstetric Surveillance System for rare disorders of pregnancy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Chinese vital registration system currently covers 41 urban and 85 rural centres, accounting for roughly 8 % of the national population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we review the history of vital registration in China, and describe the establishment and operation of the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, as discussed in Chapter 5 , implementing population-level improvements is the responsibility of the entire population health system, including all the healthy system's stakeholders. (nap.edu)
  • At present, there is no long-term investment in surveillance and research to identify the most at-risk populations, associated risk and protective factors, cost-effective treatments, and efficient health care and public health system models to expand access to care. (nap.edu)
  • The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), utilizes state health departments to actively collect information describing the public health consequences of acute hazardous substances incidents. (cdc.gov)
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) maintained the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system from 1990-2009. (cdc.gov)
  • A lung function surveillance system has operated from 18 October 1978 at the recovery coke ovens of a steelworks. (bmj.com)
  • Since 2 July 1990, the surveillance system has continued with reselected surveillance parameters and modified assessment of smoking. (bmj.com)
  • Of the 1727 subjects who ever worked in relatively highly exposed positions of coke ovens and hence were eligible to be registered in the surveillance system, 324 with no lung function measurements were excluded, along with 22 females (too few for useful analysis), and four subjects of unstated sex. (bmj.com)
  • More than half (738) of the subjects in the surveillance system began their coke oven work long before the surveillance system started. (bmj.com)
  • Barton Gellman, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist who led The Washington Post's coverage of Snowden's disclosures, summarized the leaks as follows: Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. (ovid.com)
  • To characterise the practice of active surveillance (AS) for men with low risk prostate cancer by examining the characteristics of those who commence AS, the rate of adherence to accepted AS follow-up protocols over 2 years, and factors associated with good adherence. (mja.com.au)
  • Moreover, the emphasis in eye and vision care research has shifted away from more population-based studies that focus on the translation of clinical research into effective practice and the evaluation of specific interventions and programs to promote population health to research that focuses on the pathophysiology of disease and new treatments. (nap.edu)
  • Infection Surveillance Protocol for a Multicountry Population-bas. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • First, we find that, in addition to cirrhotic patients, expanding surveillance to patients in earlier stage of hepatitis C infection improves the cost-effectiveness of HCC surveillance. (ssrn.com)
  • Second, compared with the one-size-fits-all type routine policies, we find that it is cost-effective to stratify surveillance strategies based on the stage of hepatitis C infection with less frequent cancer surveillance in earlier stages of infection. (ssrn.com)
  • This framework was used to estimate the sensitivity of poliovirus detection from each surveillance source and parameters such as the duration of infection within a community. (springer.com)
  • HIV estimates from pregnant women understate female infection levels in low income, high fertility populations. (nih.gov)
  • A case of GAS infection was defined as isolation of GAS from a sterile site in a resident of a surveillance area who was pregnant or in the postpartum period. (oup.com)
  • Population-based approaches provide ideal platforms for the development of transmission models and for future testing of community control measures directed at influenza and other respiratory diseases, including both pharmaceutical (e.g. influenza vaccination) and non-pharmaceutical (e.g. hand washing) interventions. (who.int)
  • As the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication approaches, detection of poliovirus is critical and additional surveillance activities are important. (springer.com)
  • Enhanced surveillance and response approaches for pilgrims and local Saudi populations against emerging Nipah, Zika and Ebola viral diseases outbreaks threats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Consequently, promoting and investing on new and sensitive proven effective and innovative surveillance and monitoring approaches, including enhanced risk communication , improved integrated vectors surveillance in addition to improved sustainable highly pathogens surveillance control programs to human motility and environmental sanitation strategies all represent ' One Health ' approach implementation strategic core. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus, but broader testing of existing serologic surveys with multiplex antibody assays would create new opportunities for integrated surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis. (ovid.com)
  • However, most states further restrict the population for certain pathogens to ensure complete reporting. (cdc.gov)
  • Throughout, we illustrate how information generated through integrated surveillance platforms can create new opportunities to more quickly and precisely identify global health program gaps that range from undervaccination to emerging pathogens to multilayered health disparities that span diverse communicable diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Robust disease surveillance is a cornerstone of global health efforts that range from detecting emerging pathogens and epidemics to the control or elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases, HIV, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) ( http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/9789241564540/en/ ) ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We therefore evaluated the use of genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis. (up.ac.za)
  • INTERPRETATION : Genetic sequencing can be a valuable tool for surveillance of drug resistance, providing new opportunities to monitor drug resistance in tuberculosis in resource-poor countries. (up.ac.za)
  • Population-based laboratory surveillance for AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Calgary. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of field and expert laboratory microscopy for active surveillance for asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. (msf.org)
  • We began surveillance in May 2010 for acute bacterial meningitis in hospitals in 2 rural districts in Togo. (cdc.gov)
  • To support poliomyelitis eradication in Pakistan, environmental surveillance (ES) of wastewater has been expanded alongside surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). (springer.com)
  • Surveillance for poliomyelitis relies on investigation and reporting of children who develop acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). (springer.com)
  • The total population of Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) for invasive disease is approximately 45 million. (cdc.gov)
  • The total population of Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) for invasive disease is approximately 44.1 million. (cdc.gov)
  • Active surveillance of households can identify persons with ILI or with mild or even severe influenza-related illness who do not seek health care or who are kept from doing so by lack of time, financial constraints or cultural preferences. (who.int)
  • We are conducting active surveillance in 1 peri-urban and 4 rural communities. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The integration of magnetic resonance imaging findings with clinical parameters can add value to a model predicting upgrading from a Gleason score of 3 + 3 = 6 in men on active surveillance. (ovid.com)
  • This can potentially be used as a noninvasive approach for confirming active-surveillance patients with low-risk disease for whom biopsy may be deferred. (ovid.com)
  • A long-term active surveillance of Q fever was conducted in Cyprus organized in two phases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Generally, all CRs depended on their regional and/or national oncological context and were increasingly involved in population-based studies of quality of cancer care, long-term prognosis and quality of life, one third being very active. (eur.nl)
  • Purpose: Prior studies have reported the underuse of deferred treatment (ie active surveillance or watchful waiting) for low risk prostate cancer in the United States. (diva-portal.org)
  • We examined contemporary trends in active surveillance and watchful waiting in the nationwide Swedish prostate cancer registry. (diva-portal.org)
  • Subclassification of very low risk disease, and active surveillance vs watchful waiting was possible beginning in 2007. (diva-portal.org)
  • Active, population-based surveillance was conducted in 9 regions from 1995 through 2000. (oup.com)
  • The known Active surveillance is increasingly employed to manage men with low risk prostate cancer, both to avoid unnecessary treatment and to monitor them in a manner that allows detection of progression that would justify deferred radical treatment. (mja.com.au)
  • The implications The reasons for poor adherence to active surveillance require further investigation. (mja.com.au)
  • Low risk prostate cancer is increasingly being managed with active surveillance (AS). (mja.com.au)
  • All in all, CRs are likely to remain unique sources of independent expert information on the burden of cancer, indispensable for cancer surveillance, with increased attention to cancer survivors, up to 4% of the population. (eur.nl)
  • Investments in the expanding CR network across Europe offer an excellent way forward for comparative future cancer surveillance with so many epidemiologic and clinical changes ahead. (eur.nl)
  • These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this review is to examine the current state of EHR use in public health infectious disease surveillance in the USA. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Generally, information from these surveys has been used to look at the effect of nutrition, particularly micronutrients, on the health status of the population, or subgroups within the population. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Following two successful rounds of integrated biological and behavioural surveillance (IBBS) surveys in 2008 and 2014, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) undertook a third IBBS survey in 2017. (iom.int)
  • These results support the integration of rodent population variables to reduce the uncertainty of tularemia risk estimates. (springer.com)
  • At provincial level, the seroprevalence estimates do not follow the geographical distribution of tick bites and diagnoses of Lyme borreliosis as detected through other surveillance systems. (springer.com)
  • Although the use of residual samples for seroprevalence estimates has several advantages, it seems to be a limited tool for serological surveillance of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium, other than follow-up of trends if repeated over time. (springer.com)
  • CDC retrieved populations from the National Center for Health Statistics bridged-race vintage 2019 postcensal file. (cdc.gov)
  • As previous studies have shown that those who are colonized are at a higher risk of subsequent MRSA disease, this puts a significant amount of our population--and particularly, our children--at risk of developing serious disease due to this bacterium, which is extremely difficult to treat. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The model includes population surveillance of main risk factors that predict many NCDs and combines modules on population surveillance of injuries, mental health, and stroke. (nih.gov)
  • This editorial highlights the requirement for comprehensive dental surveillance to detect and manage poor oral health (a significant risk factor for bacteraemia) as an essential preventative strategy for infective endocarditis and its potentially life-threatening complications. (bmj.com)
  • Results -Two of 40 patients with UC and 18 of 102 controls had undergone at least one surveillance colonoscopy (relative risk (RR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 1.31). (bmj.com)
  • There are three major barriers to the adoption of VAE surveillance and prevention: 1) ongoing uncertainty about VAE and concern about its limited overlap with clinically-defined VAP, 2) a paucity of studies defining risk factors for VAEs and how best to prevent VAEs, and 3) lack of emphasis on VAE surveillance and prevention by regulatory agencies. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Elective cervical cerclage versus serial ultrasound surveillance of cervical length in a population at high risk for preterm delivery. (afar.info)
  • Population: Women at high risk for preterm delivery. (afar.info)
  • Conclusion: Serial transvaginal ultrasound surveillance of cervical length in women at high risk of preterm delivery appears to reduce cerclage rates without compromising pregnancy outcome. (afar.info)
  • Lack of surveillance increases the risk that men miss the opportunity to be treated with curative intent. (mja.com.au)
  • When population health is measured at a non-profit level, the focus is on people, at the risk of providing inadequate services due to limited financial support. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Detection of multiple cocirculating wild poliovirus type 1 lineages through environmental surveillance: impact and progress during 2011-2013 in Pakistan. (springermedizin.de)
  • Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. (asm.org)
  • ABCs sites collect isolates for all cases included in surveillance areas, except where indicated (*) as different in the table below. (cdc.gov)
  • Although safe and effective influenza vaccines are available, every year seasonal influenza affects from 5% to 15% of the world's population and causes an estimated 250 000 to 500 000 deaths worldwide. (who.int)
  • 1 Novel influenza A virus strains can cause sporadic pandemics, such as the 1918 "Spanish flu" that killed at least 3% of the world's population. (who.int)
  • Surveillance was conducted in hospitals, emergency departments (EDs), and outpatient clinics, with institutional review board approval from the CDC and each participating NVSN site. (aappublications.org)
  • During 2010-2014, we conducted surveillance for patients with signs and symptoms of meningitis at 5 hospitals in northern Togo: 4 in Dapaong, Tône District, and 1 in Cinkassé, Cinkassé District. (cdc.gov)
  • Many U.S. hospitals are conducting VAE surveillance but uptake beyond the U.S. has been limited. (populationmedicine.org)
  • An understanding of the science of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) begins with the surveillance, spectrum, and burden of disease. (nap.edu)
  • Although surveillance for HCC in hepatitis C patients can improve survival, the optimal surveillance policies remain unknown. (ssrn.com)
  • Survival for patients with HCC is poor, but may be improved by surveillance, associated with the identification of earlier stage tumours, enabling curative therapies to be initiated. (mja.com.au)
  • Surveillance is associated with improved survival, but participation rates are low (40%), despite 89% of patients with HCC qualifying for surveillance. (mja.com.au)
  • During 2010-2014, we enrolled 511 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis into surveillance in 2 districts of northern Togo. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 1137 patients with cirrhosis, 22 (2%) underwent consistent surveillance, 371 (33%) had inconsistent surveillance, and 744 (65%) received no surveillance during follow-up. (ovid.com)
  • Hence the benefits of colonoscopic surveillance in patients with UC have been questioned. (bmj.com)
  • The CDC expanded the purview of safety surveillance for ventilated patients from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) to ventilator-associated events (VAE) in 2013. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Routledge International Handbook of Surveillance Studies. (open.ac.uk)
  • Breiman, Robert F. / The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and Urban Kenya . (elsevier.com)
  • A small number of confirmed clinical cases of Q fever were observed despite the high seroprevalence for C. burnetii in human and animal population of Cyprus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although electronic health records (EHRs) were designed as individual-level documentation tools for patient-provider clinical interactions, some have advocated for their use in population-level health surveillance efforts. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The chapter outlines how the development of population censuses and their alternatives such as population registers and government administrative databases can be understood as different forms of surveillance by numbers. (open.ac.uk)