• To study the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and the concentration of antibiotics, a competitive population dynamical model is proposed between the susceptible strain and the resistant strain with antibiotic exposure. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, based on the above mentioned mechanism of bacterial antibiotic resistance within the host, a competitive population dynamical model is proposed to explore the competitive interactions between the susceptible strain and the resistant strain with antibiotic exposure. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we use spatial synchrony to compare the distribution of population abundance of the dominant mussel Mytilus californianus observed along the West Coast of the United States to that predicted by dynamical models undergoing different dispersal and environmental treatments to infer the relative influence of local and regional processes. (pnas.org)
  • In light of these recent developments, we relax the assumptions of demographic openness and local equilibrium dynamics and compare the distribution of population abundance, predicted by dynamical metapopulation models undergoing different dispersal and environmental treatments, to that of the dominant mussel Mytilus californianus , observed along the West Coast of the United States, to assess the relative importance of nearshore environmental heterogeneity and dispersal. (pnas.org)
  • Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration). (wikipedia.org)
  • The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. (unt.edu)
  • Recent models of movement generation in motor cortex have sought to explain neural activity not as a function of movement parameters, known as representational models, but as a dynamical system acting at the level of the population. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, implementing a recurrent neural network we demonstrate that both representational tuning properties and rotational dynamics emerge, providing evidence that a dynamical system can reproduce previous findings of representational tuning. (nih.gov)
  • The Brookings Center on Social and Economic Dynamics and the Metropolitan Policy Program jointly hosted an NICHD funded Agent Based Modeling and Spatial Population Dynamics Workshop at the Brookings Institution. (brookings.edu)
  • Here, we show that in marine populations experiencing both intrinsic and extrinsic sources of synchrony, the shape of spatial synchrony patterns can be used to infer the cause of synchrony and explain the regional distribution of abundance. (pnas.org)
  • However, the competitive dynamics among microbes depends on the multidimensional costs of virulence and mutualism, the fine-scale spatial structure within plant roots, and active plant allocation and localized defense. (nih.gov)
  • Three researchers from the King Juan Carlos University in Madrid have therefore presented a line of study on the spatial structure and dynamics of the butterfly different to other quality characteristics in the habitat. (innovations-report.com)
  • Given the multi-scaled influence of habitat quality and population density on occupancy dynamics, our work also indicates that research on snowshoe hare must extend beyond simply assessing local factors to understand the spatial dynamics of populations. (wiley.com)
  • Fisheries Management Under Cyclical Population Dynamics ," Environmental & Resource Economics , Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 42(3), pages 379-410, March. (repec.org)
  • Evolution of recent economic-demographic modeling: A synthesis ," Journal of Population Economics , Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 275-300, June. (repec.org)
  • M. Iannelli and F. Milner, The Basic Approach to Age-Structured Population Dynamics: Models, Methods and Numerics , Springer, 2017. (aimsciences.org)
  • J. A. Metz and O. Diekmann, The Dynamics of Physiologically Structured Populations , Springer, 2014. (aimsciences.org)
  • Failure to consider the indirect positive interaction in this system would lead to a gross underestimate of the strength of competition, and would not reveal the critical im- portance of the indirect mutualism in maintaining local populations of the inferior com- petitor. (mendeley.com)
  • Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). (diva-portal.org)
  • This assumption, typically associated with equilibrium dynamics at the local scale, has emphasized the effect of large-scale heterogeneity in nearshore environmental conditions on recruitment (i.e., supply-side theory) to explain the regional dynamics of marine populations ( 6 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • We study how long it takes for large populations of interacting agents to come close to Nash equilibrium when they adapt their behavior using a stochastic better reply dynamic. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Synchronized fluctuations in abundance among spatially segregated populations are common in nature and can be used to quantify and understand the distribution of abundance in space and time ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • For example, in experiments, it was shown that there was a spatially antagonistic center-surround structure in optimal weights in signal detection theory, which was believed to underlie the efficiency of population coding. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to population and development policies, the Government had also adopted sectoral policies, including a Health Master Plan (a new one is being prepared), two youth strategies, several reproductive health policies, and a national gender strategy. (prb.org)
  • This is especially true when dealing with the protection of the sexual and reproductive health and rights of all people, a sensitive area, and one with enormous implications for population dynamics. (unfpa.org)
  • The International Conference on Population and Development , the Millennium Development Goals , and the upcoming post-2015 development agenda all call for unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health care, including voluntary family planning . (unfpa.org)
  • The document concludes that the strength of UNFPA's contribution to poverty reduction resides in the complementarity of different interventions and the synergies by which population dynamics, gender equality and reproductive health work together to reduce poverty. (unfpa.org)
  • If r is negative, the population declines quickly to extinction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But despite the fact that, as expected, postextinction single-neuron responses did not resemble "naive responses," ensemble response dynamics changed with learning and reverted with extinction: both the speed of stimulus processing and the relationships among ensemble responses to the different stimuli tracked behavioral relevance. (jneurosci.org)
  • As a result, the smallest habitat patches had lower butterfly population sizes and higher rates of extinction, irrespective of their quality of habitat. (innovations-report.com)
  • This high level of synchrony is a risk to populations which might experience mass extinction in all areas experiencing adverse conditions, such as the effects of climate change. (innovations-report.com)
  • Information from meta-analyses will be combined with models of population dynamics to evaluate how trait variation and selection can affect key population attributes such as size, growth rate, and probability of extinction. (ucsb.edu)
  • Population dynamics has traditionally been the dominant branch of mathematical biology, which has a history of more than 210 years, although more recently the scope of mathematical biology has greatly expanded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population dynamics overlap with another active area of research in mathematical biology: mathematical epidemiology, the study of infectious disease affecting populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parameters of various theoretical models of the population biology of transposable elements were estimated from our data, and different hypotheses explaining TE copy number containment were tested. (cambridge.org)
  • The CPD brings together leading population researchers from disciplines across social science and health fields, including demography, economics, epidemiology, and sociology as well as computer science, geography and social work. (mcgill.ca)
  • Her research interests are mainly in the areas of demographic indicators of population health, aboriginal demography, demography in developing countries, HIV/AIDS, family dynamics, social and economic determinants of health, and longitudinal survey data collection and analysis. (mcgill.ca)
  • The Effects of Mortality on Fertility: Population Dynamics After a Natural Disaster, " Demography, vol 52(1), pages 15-38. (nber.org)
  • Bacterial population dynamics in dairy waste during aerobic and anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to model a typical dairy waste stream, monitor the chemical and bacterial population dynamics that occur during aerobic or anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage in a simulated lagoon, and compare them to those of waste held without treatment in a simulated lagoon. (cdc.gov)
  • Biofilm coculture of strain PAO1 and a pyocin-sensitive isolate showed that pyocin production had a significant impact on bacterial population dynamics, particularly under anaerobic conditions. (asm.org)
  • The Population Dynamics Option (PDO) is a cross-disciplinary, cross-faculty graduate program offered as an option within 5 existing Master's and doctoral programs in the departments of Sociology, Economics, and Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health (EBOH) at McGill University. (mcgill.ca)
  • The focus of the course will be how mathematical models can help us both predict the future behaviour of populations and understand their dynamics. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Previous investigations of population oscillations have utilized primarily two distinct approaches: potential mechanisms have been investigated with mathematical models, while data patterns have been investigated with phenomenological time-series analyses (cycles have also been investigated experimentally, but this approach is not part of our proposal because it falls outside of the scope of the research supported by the Center). (ucsb.edu)
  • It will take you through the fascinating mathematics of creating mathematical models to describe the changes in populations of living creatures. (maths.org)
  • An advanced mathematical exploration supporting our series of articles on population dynamics for advanced students. (maths.org)
  • Largely concerned with mathematical models used to describe time-varying populations and series of events, The Dynamics of Discrete Populations and Series of Events demonstrates how analytical tools are used to develop, simulate, and solve discrete stochastic models. (routledge.com)
  • A. Calsina and J. M. Palmada , Steady states of a selection-mutation model for an age structured population, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 400 (2013), 386-395. (aimsciences.org)
  • L. Desvillettes , P. E. Jabin , S. Mischler and G. Raoul , On selection dynamics for continuous structured populations, Communications in Mathematical Sciences , 6 (2008), 729-747. (aimsciences.org)
  • Now, Srividya Iyer-Biswas, of Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, and colleagues have developed and tested a theoretical framework that could allow researchers to learn about the behavior of individual cells by studying the cell population at large. (aps.org)
  • Starting from first principles, the authors crafted a model for population behavior in which the cells have "memory," which is needed because a cell's history affects its aging process. (aps.org)
  • These data suggest that population coding is linked to behavior with a fidelity that single-neuron coding is not. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that, despite the fact that single-neuron responses change with each new experience, ensemble response dynamics continue to accurately and stably reflect a sensory stimulus' relationship to behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. (unt.edu)
  • Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics. (unt.edu)
  • These policies also favor the migration of a large portion of the population (up to 100,000 people) to the Greater Male' Area. (prb.org)
  • It has been found in experiments that even some simple sensory stimuli can activate large populations of neurons. (pnas.org)
  • The population structure of Staphylococcus aureus carried by healthy humans was determined using a large strain collection of nonclinical origin (n = 829). (jci.org)
  • In the 1950s only New York and Tokyo were large enough to qualify as megacities, but population experts project that six cities-São Paulo, Mexico City, Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Delhi, Dhaka, and Tokyo-will have topped the 20 million mark by 2015, with New York, Jakarta, and Lagos close behind (Fig. 14). (learner.org)
  • Compared with other Latin American countries, however, Venezuela never had a large Indian population. (country-data.com)
  • In the future, humans would be unable to feed large populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, the extent of caching of seasonally abundant foods, such as large concentrations of nesting birds, and the implications of caching on population dynamics are unknown for most animals (Vander Wall, 1990). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Large bird colonies therefore provide an ideal setting to study food caching by arctic foxes and the link between seasonally abundant foods and population dynamics. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Previous studies have extensively characterized the homogenous dynamics of large bacterial populations exposed to antibiotics, establishing the deterministic framework of pharmacodynamics. (aps.org)
  • The population dynamics of Megalobulimus paranaguensis (Pilsbry & Ihering, 1900), a large and long-lived land gastropod from Brazil's Southeast (Atlantic Forest) was studied between 2006 and 2009, at an urban park in the city of Santos, state of São Paulo. (scielo.br)
  • in fact, it is bounded for all sufficiently large populations. (lse.ac.uk)
  • The Population Dynamics Branch studies changes in distribution, abundance, and composition (size, sex, age, etc.) and is responsible for monitoring the abundance of fish stocks, measuring the impact of fishing activity, and evaluating biological aspects of the ecosystem. (noaa.gov)
  • This fellowship provides a full year of stipend support and release from teaching so that Sydne can focus full-time on her disseration research on understory plants, ants, and ecosystem dynamics. (harvard.edu)
  • In this paper, we argue that understanding marine ecosystem functioning requires a thorough appreciation of the role of intraguild predation to system dynamics. (uva.nl)
  • 2011. Genetic correlations between adults and larvae in a marine fish: Potential effects of fishery selection on population replenishment. (ucsb.edu)
  • There are many potential explanations for oscillatory population dynamics (in the general sense), with some focusing on intrinsic factors, but most often invoking some aspect of consumer-resource interactions (we briefly review some theoretical and empirical mechanisms by which population cycles can arise in Section 11). (ucsb.edu)
  • establish correspondences between theoretical mechanisms that could drive cycles and quantitative descriptors of oscillatory population dynamics (these will be defined in Section 111. (ucsb.edu)
  • apply a combination of modeling and statistical techniques to a number of data sets (Section IV) in an attempt to determine which of the possible theoretical mechanisms may be responsible for population oscillations in each particular case. (ucsb.edu)
  • This is therefore the theoretical maximum rate of increase of a population per individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stochastic dynamics leading to the observed scale-invariant distributions has been studied as a Yule process, as a branching phenomenon and also by field-theoretical renormalization group techniques. (mdpi.com)
  • Impacts from the 2011 Tohohu tsunami on the population were also examined for our USFWS partners. (usgs.gov)
  • As noted in section 1, human societies' impacts on the environment are a function of three major, interconnected elements: population size, affluence or consumption, and technology. (learner.org)
  • Using a representational velocity-tuning based simulation of center-out reaching, we show that incorporating variable latency offsets between neural activity and kinematics is sufficient to generate rotational dynamics at the level of neural populations, a phenomenon observed in motor cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Promoting better market access and market performance for smallholder agricultural producers and the provision of access to better quality and lower price food for the majority of the world's population requires the strengthening of rural-urban linkages and putting 'place-based development' at. (fao.org)
  • Although this slow rate of decline satisfies the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for TB, which is to ensure that the incidence rate is falling by 2015, the world's population is growing at about 2% per year, so the total number of new TB cases is still rising ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • As a consequence, in any population the fixation of mutations is accelerated when environmental conditions cause population bottlenecks. (springer.com)
  • In a nonrecombinant haploid system, as is our focus here, mutations on the parental background(s) allow the population to explore neighboring regions of sequence space and thereby climb a fitness peak. (genetics.org)
  • The seasonal dynamics of biological traits in a population of European bitterling Rhodeus amarus from a small river in central Europe (River Kyjovka, Czech Republic) were investigated from April 2007 to March 2008. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The small bottleneck lines appeared to operate near the transition between isolated selective sweeps and conditions of complex dynamics ( e.g ., clonal interference). (genetics.org)
  • About three-quarters of the world's urban population lives in small or intermediate-sized cities, which have fewer than 1 million inhabitants or 1 to 5 million inhabitants, respectively ( footnote 17 ). (learner.org)
  • The population sizes were small, with only tens of individuals in the "best" years, and were even smaller in smaller patches, with fewer than ten individuals. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, characterizing small bacterial populations, we demonstrate the stochastic nature of bacterial clearance using antibiotics. (aps.org)
  • This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. (unt.edu)
  • The death rate, also called mortality rate, describes the number of individuals who die in a population per unit time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The model achieves this by adjusting the mortality rate of the adults so that the modeled population produces the observed number of pups. (gc.ca)
  • Over the years, Adams has been able to connect population size of the Denali Herd with winter severity (snow depth) and calf survival, as well as the age structure of cows (older cows are more prone to mortality and produce fewer calves). (nps.gov)
  • Using population-representative multilevel longitudinal data, we identify a behavioral fertility response to mortality exposure, both at the level of a couple and in the broader community. (nber.org)
  • Second, women without children before the tsunami initiated family-building earlier in communities where tsunami-related mortality rates were higher, indicating that the fertility of these women is an important route to rebuilding the population in the aftermath of a mortality shock. (nber.org)
  • Population Dynamics - Identify factors influencing reproduction and mortality on Laysan Island. (usgs.gov)
  • Especially we scrutinise the transmission dynamics of parasites and the influence of parasites on grouse mortality and breeding success. (arcticcentre.org)
  • In addition, cycles may involve not only the total population abundance, but also other aspects of dynamics, e.g. oscillations in age structure and complex spatio-temporal behaviors, such as synchronous oscillations or periodic traveling waves. (ucsb.edu)
  • Beluga abundance in the St Lawrence Estuary has been modeled using aerial surveys, which also provide information on the proportion of young animals in the population. (gc.ca)
  • The population was effectively annual, with a major decrease in adult fish abundance at the end of the reproductive period. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1). (diva-portal.org)
  • Insight into the process of genomic rearrangement may further the understanding of pathogen population dynamics and selection on the architecture of circular bacterial chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Since 1986, Dr. Adams has focused on annual assessments of the herd's basic population dynamics (herd size and trend, adult sex composition, adult female survival, and calf production and survival). (nps.gov)
  • Three races contributed significantly to the composition of the Venezuelan population: whites, Africans, and Indians. (country-data.com)
  • The radiocollars allow Adams to periodically locate caribou within the herd for population surveys, as well as to monitor the productivity and survival of individual caribou. (nps.gov)
  • Research also examines factors that may affect population parameters such as energy intake or disease. (gc.ca)
  • The Program also conducts considerable research and development of new methods for stock assessment research, and has participated in major field programs to estimate bivalve populations directly from the results of expanded research vessel survey catches. (noaa.gov)
  • Since 1966, researchers at the Carolina Population Center have pioneered data collection and research techniques that move population science forward by emphasizing life course approaches, longitudinal surveys, the integration of biological measurement into social surveys, and attention to context and environment. (unc.edu)
  • In times of unprecedented demographic shifts, this research develops a novel framework to classify protected areas with respect to their level of urbanization, and reveal the current relation between heritage zoning and trends of population dynamics. (academictransfer.com)
  • Although covariate rainfall shocks plainly matter, household-specific factors, including own herd size, account for most observed variability in wealth dynamics. (umn.edu)