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  • nucleic acids
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • They also play a major role in protecting cellular membranes, stabilising cell proteins and supporting the body's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small changes in cellular oxidant status can be sensed by specific proteins which regulate a set of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosylation
  • This is when glycosylation and polysaccharide synthesis occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-linked glycosylation in eukaryotic cells follows a conserved pathway in which a tetradecasaccharide substrate (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) is initially assembled in the ER membrane as a dolichylpyrophosphate (Dol-PP)-linked intermediate before being transferred to an asparaginyl residue in a lumenal protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolichols play a role in the co-translational modification of proteins known as N-glycosylation in the form of dolichol phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in the sugar carrier dolichyl phosphate may reflect an increased rate of glycosylation in the diseased brain, and the increase in the endogenous anti-oxidant ubiquinone an attempt to protect the brain from oxidative stress, for instance, induced by lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Dolichols are important as glycosyl carriers in the synthesis of polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I transmembrane proteins are anchored to the lipid membrane with a stop-transfer anchor sequence and have their N-terminal domains targeted to the ER lumen during synthesis (and the extracellular space, if mature forms are located on plasmalemma). (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic acid
  • Digestion of this acid-sensitive polysaccharide, a linear homopolymer of α(2 → 9)-linked sialic acid, to the size of the monomeric unit resulted in a dominant CD4 + T cell response to peptides in the context of MHCII. (pnas.org)
  • transmembrane
  • The bacterial proteins are of about 450 amino acyl residues in length and exhibit 12 putative transmembrane segments (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane proteins are polytopic proteins that aggregate and precipitate in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the major category of transmembrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • All beta-barrel transmembrane proteins have simplest up-and-down topology, which may reflect their common evolutionary origin and similar folding mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common tertiary structures of these proteins are transmembrane helix bundle and beta barrel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane α-helical proteins are unusually stable judging from thermal denaturation studies, because they do not unfold completely within the membranes (the complete unfolding would require breaking down too many α-helical H-bonds in the nonpolar media). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the "unfolded" bacteriorhodopsin in SDS micelles has four transmembrane α-helices folded, while the rest of the protein is situated at the micelle-water interface and can adopt different types of non-native amphiphilic structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refolding of α-helical transmembrane proteins in vitro is technically difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • archaea
  • The MATE proteins in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes function as fundamental transporters of metabolic and xenobiotic organic cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolichols
  • In addition, dolichols can be adducted to proteins as a posttranslational modification, a process in which branched carbohydrate trees are formed on a dolichol moiety and then transferred to an assembly of proteins to form a large glycoprotein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • These transporters may function together with auxiliary proteins that allow passage across just the cytoplasmic membrane or both membranes of the Gram-negative bacterial envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-barrel proteins are so far found only in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria, cell wall of gram-positive bacteria, and outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, these proteins easily misfold, due to non-native aggregation in membranes, transition to the molten globule states, formation of non-native disulfide bonds, or unfolding of peripheral regions and nonregular loops that are locally less stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • But Robl and Cibelli didn't do any of the tests normally done to show that these cells were human or that they were stem cells, such as looking for expression of human proteins or growth of specialized tissues. (sciencemag.org)
  • relatively
  • Some naturally occurring proteins have a relatively small number of subunits and therefore described as oligomeric, for example hemoglobin or DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane proteins which have hydrophobic surfaces, are relatively flexible and are expressed at relatively low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Oxidized SoxR then induces the expression of SoxS protein, which in turn activates the transcription of structural genes of the SoxRS regulon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidized form of this factor specifically binds to the promoters of constituent genes of OxyR regulon, including katG (hydroperoxidase-catalase HPІ), gorA (glutathione reductase), grxA (glutaredoxin 1), trxC(thioredoxin 2), ahpCF (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), dps (nonspecific DNA binding protein) and oxyS (a small regulatory RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • indicative that memory B cell formation is also improved over that of the polysaccharide form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the soxRS regulon occurs by a two-stage process: the SoxR protein is first converted to an oxidized form that enhances soxS transcription, and the increased level of SoxS protein in turn activates the expression of the regulon. (wikipedia.org)
  • NorM
  • The probable transport reaction catalyzed by NorM, and possibly by other proteins of the MATE family is: Antimicrobial (in) + nNa+ (out) → Antimicrobial (out) + nNa+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium
  • Multi-antimicrobial extrusion protein (MATE) also known as multidrug and toxin extrusion or multidrug and toxic compound extrusion is a family of proteins which function as drug/sodium or proton antiporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • MATE
  • A representative list of proteins belonging to the MATE family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of energy coupling is not established, but homology with the MATE family suggests that they are secondary carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • aureus
  • An estimated 20% to 30% of the human population are long-term carriers of S. aureus which can be found as part of the normal skin flora, in the nostrils, and as a normal inhabitant of the lower reproductive tract of women. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • Double-labelling for dystrophin and neurofilament protein showed that these dystrophin-deficient sites were subjacent to the annulospiral sensory-nerve wrappings terminating on the intrafusal fibers. (ubc.ca)
  • surface
  • We investigated the interaction of PEGylated and un-PEGylated PLGA NPs with Recombinant Human Mannose-Binding Protein (HMBP) in an effort to understand the effect of surface modification on their binding to the protein. (scirp.org)
  • A free virus particle may be thought of as a packaging device by which viral genetic material can be introduced into appropriate host cells, which the virus can recognize by means of proteins on its outermost surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We found agr-regulated proteins are generally upregulated in CA-MRSA strains USA300 and USA400 and surface-associated proteins to be upregulated in HA-MRSA strains USA100 and USA200. (usf.edu)
  • citation needed] Non-microbial non-self antigens can include pollen, egg white and proteins from transplanted tissues and organs or on the surface of transfused blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a globally important commercial crop, grown mainly for its protein, oil and nutraceutical contents. (intechopen.com)
  • Although grown worldwide for its protein and oil, high value added products such as plant functional nutraceuticals, including phospholipids, saponins, isoflavones, oligosaccharides and edible fibre, have gained importance in the last decade. (intechopen.com)
  • The vaccine's polysaccharide sugars are grown separately in soy peptone broths. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We found cytoplasmic proteins involved in glycolysis to be highly expressed in post-exponential phase while proteins involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle to be prevalent in stationary phase. (usf.edu)
  • The same type of bond is found in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This result is largely due to dynamic changes in protein expression profiles which can lead wide alterations in physiology and behavior. (usf.edu)
  • samples
  • The technique is particularly useful in performing immunoassays for protein analytes, such as a glycosylated protein, in aqueous test samples. (google.com)
  • time
  • In 1944, Oswald Avery , Colin MacLeod , and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein , as was widely believed at the time, but DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the post-genomic era, proteomic studies analyzing the protein complement of a genome in a particular organism at any given time, have gained real significance. (usf.edu)
  • make
  • These biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins, essential macromolecules of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead
  • NPs may interact with these proteins in a similar way, and the interaction may lead to beneficial outcomes in vaccine delivery. (scirp.org)
  • site
  • 5. The fusion protein according to claim 2, wherein the protease cleavage site is a protease cleavage site that is cleaved by a protease selected from Enterokinase, Factor Xa, Tobacco Etch virus (TEV), Thrombin or PreScission. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • small
  • Capsules too small to be seen with an ordinary microscope, such as the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, are called microcapsules. (wikipedia.org)