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  • gene
  • A total of 108 individuals from the Ecuadorian population from rural and urban places were analyzed for two CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms. (hindawi.com)
  • A combination of the Greek words poly (meaning multiple) and morph (meaning form), polymorphism is a term used in genetics to describe multiple forms of a single gene that exists in an individual or among a group of individuals. (thebalance.com)
  • Where monomorphism means having only one form and dimorphism means there are only two forms, the term polymorphism is a very specific term in genetics and biology , relating to the multiple forms of a gene that can exist. (thebalance.com)
  • Also, the term is sometimes used incorrectly to describe visibly different geographical races or variants, but polymorphism refers to the fact that the multiple forms of a single gene must occupy the same habitat at the same time (which excludes geographical, race or seasonal morphs. (thebalance.com)
  • To date, most genetic progress for quantitative traits in livestock, especially for dairy cows has been made by selection on phenotype or on estimated breeding values (EBV) derived from phenotype, without knowledge of the number of genes that affect the trait or the effects of each gene. (intechopen.com)
  • Many scientists today believe the latter, because some linkage disequilibrium is initially needed to select for tighter linkage, and linkage disequilibrium requires both the previous existence of polymorphisms via some other process, like natural selection, favouring gene combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies larger than expected from genetic drift alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic diversity remains lower, increasing only when gene flow with another population occurs or very slowly increasing with time as random mutations occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, if by chance survivors of the bottleneck are the individuals with the greatest genetic fitness, the frequency of the fitter genes within the gene pool is increased, while the pool itself is reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Polymorphism was originally used to describe visible forms of genes, but the term is now used to include cryptic modes such as blood types, which require a blood test to decipher. (thebalance.com)
  • Molecular genetics allows for the study the genetic make-up of individuals at the DNA level and may provide the tools to make those opportunities a reality, either by direct selection on genes that affect traits of interest major genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) - or through selection on genetic markers linked to QTL. (intechopen.com)
  • A supergene is a group of neighbouring genes on a chromosome which are inherited together because of close genetic linkage and are functionally related in an evolutionary sense, although they are rarely co-regulated genetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • If genes are weakly linked, it is probable that the rarer advantageous haplotype dies out, leading to the loss of polymorphism at the other locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • thereafter, a smaller population, with a correspondingly smaller genetic diversity, remains to pass on genes to future generations of offspring through sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • However, genetic progress may be further enhanced if we could gain insight into the black box of quantitative traits. (intechopen.com)
  • C) Molecular genetic information can be obtained on all selection candidates, which is especially beneficial for sex-limited traits, traits that are expensive or difficult to record, or traits that require slaughter of the animal (carcass traits) ( Dekkers, 2004 ). (intechopen.com)
  • drift
  • Like Fisher, he continued the natural selection versus genetic drift debate with Sewall Wright, whom Ford believed put too much emphasis on genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic drift caused by a population bottleneck can change the proportional distribution of alleles by chance and even lead to fixation or loss of alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • On the basis of genetic polymorphism a population may be divided into two groups namely extensive metabolizers (EMs) demonstrating normal metabolism of the drugs and poor metabolizers (PMs) demonstrating impaired metabolism of drugs due to the deficiency of CYPs. (redorbit.com)
  • Another example is the genetic polyrmorphism of larval developmental rates seen in the Phengaris rebeli, in which there exist slow-developing larvae (SDL) (75% of the total P. rebeli larval population) and fast-developing larvae (FDL) (25% of the total P. rebeli larvae population). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms (which are not exclusive within any given population) by which balancing selection works to maintain polymorphism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the smaller population size after a bottleneck event, the chances of inbreeding and genetic homogeneity increase, leading to the potential for inbreeding depression to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Types have been introduced to Genetic Programming (GP) by researchers with different motivation. (springer.com)
  • We present the concept of types in GP and introduce a typed GP system, PolyGP, that supports polymorphism through the use of three different kinds of type variable. (springer.com)
  • The investigators investigate the prevalence of genetic polymorphism affecting efavirenz metabolism and the corresponding pharmacokinetics of different genotypes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • evolutionary
  • Based on the analysis of a series of experimental results, we conclude that this implementation of polymorphism is effective in assisting GP evolutionary search to generate these two programs. (springer.com)
  • found
  • Hence, association has been found between the genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 and therapeutic response to PPIs. (redorbit.com)
  • Charles Elton, who led the emergence of ecology as a discipline, pointed out the Arctic fox polymorphism, which can be found in all three tundra biomes of the northern palaeoarctic. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • A method and a package for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms in complement receptor is useful in identifying individual susceptibility to a disease. (google.com)
  • researchers
  • LONDON It will be possible to unravel the causative mechanisms of many diseases that have been the subject of genomewide association studies by carrying out genetic investigations in mice, researchers in Scandinavia suggested. (bioworld.com)
  • data
  • Data is available from 1939 to the present day, got by the usual field method of capture-mark-release-recapture and by genetic analysis from breeding in captivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that additional bottlenecks must have occurred since Homo erectus started walking the Earth, but current archaeological, paleontological, and genetic data is inadequate to give much reliable information about such conjectured bottlenecks. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • CYP2C19 polymorphism affected eradication of Helicobacter pylori using diferent PPI based eradication therapies as PM patients demonstrated significantly higher eradication rates compared to EMs. (redorbit.com)
  • reduction
  • b)-Molecular genetic information can be available at an early age, in principle at the embryo stage, thereby allowing early selection and reduction of generation intervals. (intechopen.com)
  • single
  • The present invention relates generally to compounds and methods for identifying polymorphism in a cellular receptor, and more particularly, to compounds and methods for identifying and typing single nucleotide polymorphisms that code for a complement receptor and applying these polymorphisms to delineation of disease susceptibility and severity. (google.com)
  • research
  • However, subsequent research, especially in the 2010s, appeared to refute both the climate argument and the genetic argument. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis
  • An Analysis of the Impact of Functional Programming Techniques on Genetic Programming , Phd Thesis, University College London, 1999. (springer.com)
  • variants
  • As Director of Translational Research in Psychiatry, her major research focus is the identification of mechanisms by which genetic variants and environmental exposure interact to influence stress reactivity and, through these, the risk for affective and anxiety disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • They are often the result of a population bottlenecks from larger populations, leading to reduced genetic diversity and loss or fixation of alleles and shifts in allele frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In small populations, selection is less effective, and the relative importance of genetic drift is higher because deleterious alleles can become more frequent and 'fixed' in a population due to chance. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • However, another study suggests that the Onge (indigenous to Little Andaman) are "more closely related to Southeast Asians than they are to present-day South Asians," and that the Great Andamanese "appear to have received a degree of relatively recent admixture from adjacent regional populations but also share a significant degree of genetic ancestry with Malaysian negrito groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • O. tipulae is a satellite developmental genetic model organism used to study vulva formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • association
  • 3. Ng D.P., Tai B.C., Koh D., Tan K.W., Chia K.S. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and its association with diabetic nephropathy: a meta-analysis of studies reported between 1994 and 2004 and comprising 14,727 subjects. (medalmanac.ru)
  • Full
  • IE: your sibling works for Corporation A, you are diagnosed with a genetic malady of any severity (from full blown cancer to edge-case diabetes), and your sibling's company and/or insurance provider gets to know about it. (xkcd.com)
  • shown
  • It has been shown that interbreeding organisms that have more genetic compatibilities have less disruption of spermatogenesis and normal sized testes, while species who are less genetically compatible have a higher disruption in spermatogenesis and generally have atrophied testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • relative
  • THe part you bolded says that if you have a relative that comes down with some kind of genetically related disease, then either their wellness program, - or the employer provided health insurance - can demand the genetic screening information of that relative. (xkcd.com)
  • section
  • For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "family member" has the meaning given such term in section 201 of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (Public Law 110-233). (xkcd.com)
  • Immigration promotes survival by increasing genetic diversity, which will be discussed in the next section as a harmful factor in small populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Segregation in F 1 and F 2 families confirmed the order of dominance already determined by classical genetic experiments with a possible dose effect evident comparing e J / e J and e J / e animals. (biomedcentral.com)