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  • polyethylene
  • Oxygen is also commonly present in polymer backbones, such as those of polyethylene glycol, polysaccharides (in glycosidic bonds), and DNA (in phosphodiester bonds). (wikipedia.org)
  • Disposable diapers where they absorb urine, or in sanitary napkins Contact lenses (silicone hydrogels, polyacrylamides, polymacon) EEG and ECG medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross-linked polymers (polyethylene oxide, polyAMPS and polyvinylpyrrolidone) Water gel explosives Rectal drug delivery and diagnosis Encapsulation of quantum dots Breast implants Glue Granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas Dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • copolymers
  • The development of controlled radical polymerization as a synthetic methodology in the 1990s allowed for increased study of the concepts and properties of gradient copolymers because the synthesis of this group of novel polymers was now straightforward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials mimicking animal mucosal tissues to be used for testing mucoadhesive properties of drug delivery systems Common ingredients include polyvinyl alcohol, sodium polyacrylate, acrylate polymers and copolymers with an abundance of hydrophilic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • copolymer
  • For simplification the resultant polymer has been labeled as IBc (isopropylacrylamide butyl methacrylate copolymer). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the gradient copolymer, as a result of the gradual compositional change along the length of the polymer chain less intrachain and interchain repulsion are observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the compatiabilization of immiscible blends, the gradient copolymer can be used by improving mechanical and optical properties of immiscible polymers and decreasing its dispersed phase to droplet size. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more efficient analysis of copolymer molecular mass and composition is possible using GPC combined with a triple-detection system comprising multi-angle light scattering, UV absorption and differential refractometry, if the copolymer is composed of two base polymers that provide different responses to UV and/or refractive index. (wikipedia.org)
  • linear polymer
  • In the presence of strong acids, THF converts to a linear polymer called poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol (PTMEG), also known as polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO): n C4H8O → −(CH2CH2CH2CH2O)n− This polymer is primarily used to make elastomeric polyurethane fibers like Spandex. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPLC
  • IR5: an infrared detector for highly demanding applications in Polymer Char instruments such us GPC-IR, HPLC, CFC and other separation techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • structurally
  • Latest summary as of 1st May 2017 - https://nutritionfacts.org/video/antiperspirants-and-breast-cancer/ Aluminium chlorohydrate is best described as an inorganic polymer and as such is difficult to structurally characterise. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • The wide range of composition possible in a gradient polymer due to the variety of monomers incorporated and the change of the composition results in a large variety of properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally the composition has a narrow polydispersity index (PDI) and the molecular weight increases with time as the polymer forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both by weight and volume, gels are mostly fluid in composition and thus exhibit densities similar to those of their constituent liquids. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. (wikipedia.org)
  • polyacrylamide
  • Commercial gels like PLgel, Sephadex, Bio-Gel (cross-linked polyacrylamide), agarose gel and Styragel are often used based on different separation requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • It enables laboratory researchers to optimize polymer reactions by providing them with a better understanding of the underlying reaction kinetics and mechanisms. (wiley.com)
  • Next, it explains why certain polymer and reaction characteristics need to be monitored. (wiley.com)
  • The Al to ACH ratio and the time of reaction allowed determines the polymer form of the PAC n to m ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • viscosity
  • This allows them to contribute more to viscosity in their stretched state, because the stretched-out polymer takes up more space. (wikipedia.org)
  • ionic
  • 3. The electrochromic display of claim 1 wherein the bipolar ion-exchange membrane is a laminated structure of at least one liquid ionic polymer layer and at least one solid ionic polymeric membrane. (google.com)
  • 5. The electrochromic display of claim 4 wherein the layer containing anion-exchange groups is a layer of a liquid ionic polymer, and the layers containing cation-exchange groups are solid ionic polymeric membranes. (google.com)
  • 6. The electrochromic display of claim 4 wherein the layers containing cation-exchange groups are liquid ionic polymer layers, and the layer containing anion-exchange groups is a solid ionic polymeric membrane. (google.com)
  • Polyionic polymers are polymers with an ionic functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • monomers
  • This need to pair monomers to catalysts means most conjugated polymers are synthesized via palladium catalyzed step-growth polycondensation cross-coupling reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • CTP is exclusively performed on arene monomers to give conjugated polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilute
  • Gels are defined as a substantially dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow when in the steady-state. (wikipedia.org)
  • high temperature
  • A method for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. (google.com)
  • thermal
  • Thermogravimetric analysis can also give an indication of polymer thermal stability and the effects of additives such as flame retardants. (wikipedia.org)
  • termination
  • The polymers obtained from a true CTP are often low dispersity and contain consistent end groups (two on each chain, one put on the polymer chain end during initiation, and the other put on during termination). (wikipedia.org)
  • agarose
  • these materials include agarose, methylcellulose, hyaluronan, Elastin like polypeptides and other naturally derived polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • coatings
  • ASL applies its know- how to a broad range of materials, such as industrial minerals, polymers and adhesives, coatings (incl. (eie.gr)
  • These systems have applications across many industries including Polymer and Protein sciences, Pharmaceuticals, the Painting and Coatings industries, Research Institutions and Food Processing just to name a few. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyst
  • The catalyst migrates, via ring-walking, to the π-bond adjacent to the C-X bond at the end of the dimer, allowing oxidative addition to occur, forming the active polymer-nickel(II)-bromide catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • ring opening polyme
  • Some of the other methods include: microwave heating, high-throughput synthesis (synthesis of polymers in parallel), ring opening polymerization (removal of cyclic monomers), interfacial condensation (high temperature reaction of two monomers), dehydrative coupling agents (removing the water group from two carboxyl groups), and solution polymerization (reacting in a solution). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other synthetic routes include: controlled sol-gel processes, group transfer polymerization, transition metal catalysis, living anionic polymerization, living cationic polymerization, ring opening polymerization, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), and controlled radical polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melt
  • Traditionally, polyanhydrides have been prepared by melt condensation polymerization, which results in high molecular weight polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melt condensation polymerization involves reacting dicarboxylic acid monomers with excess acetic anhydride at a high temperature and under a vacuum to form the polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, star-shaped polymers exhibit lower melt temperatures, lower crystallization temperatures and lower degrees of crystallinity than comparable linear analogues. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • It is an example of a sol-gel process wherein a molecular precursor (typically tetraethylorthosilicate) is first reacted with water in an alcoholic solution, the resulting molecules then joining together to build larger structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specializing in protein, polymer and particle characterization, with techniques in zeta potential, molecular weight, chromatography and dynamic light scattering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "polymer" derives from the ancient Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (meros, meaning "parts"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the most interesting characteristics exhibited by star-shaped polymers are their unique rheological and dynamic properties compared to linear analogues of identical molecular weight and monomer composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • The boom of Ion exchange chromatography primarily began between 1935-1950 during World War II and it was through the "Manhattan project" that applications and IC were significantly extended. (wikipedia.org)
  • These systems have applications across many industries including Polymer and Protein sciences, Pharmaceuticals, the Painting and Coatings industries, Research Institutions and Food Processing just to name a few. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many studies on the characteristics, syntheses, and applications of star-shaped polymers have since been undertaken and remain an active area of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • high-performance
  • It was in the fifties and sixties that theoretical models were developed for IC for further understanding and it was not until the seventies that continuous detectors were utilized, paving the path for the development from low-pressure to high-performance chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • solution
  • Miktoarm polymers have been shown to aggregate into particularly interesting supramolecular formations such as stars, segmented ribbons, and core-shell-corona micellar assemblies depending on their arms' solubility in solution, which can be affected by changes in temperature, pH, solvent, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • These self-assembly properties have implications for solubility of the whole star polymers themselves and for other solutes in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, which is the main constituent of wood and paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • class
  • This class of polymers is characterized by a crystalline structure, melting temperature range of 50-90 °C, and solubility in chlorinated hydrocarbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • This class of polymers has a highly crystalline structure and is insoluble in common organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will determine the class of polanhydride (aromatic, aliphatic, or unsaturated) as well as the structural features of the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • In addition, a gel filtration experiment was performed to see if the underestimation was caused by the presence of albumin polymers in the purified and heat-treated product, which might interfere with sample diffusion in the Vitros slide. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The addition of functional groups to the arms of star-shaped polymers as well as selective solvent choice can affect their aggregation properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • The characteristic anhydride bonds in polyanhydrides are water-labile (the polymer chain breaks apart at the anhydride bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Certain Miktoarm star-block polymers have been shown to stabilize water-organic solvent emulsions, while others have demonstrated the ability to increase the solubility of inorganic salts in organic solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Procyanidins, including the lesser bioactive / bioavailable polymers (4 or more catechines) represent a group of condensed flavan-3-ols that can be found in many plants, most notably apples, maritime pine bark, cinnamon, aronia fruit, cocoa beans, grape seed, grape skin, and red wines of Vitis vinifera (the common grape). (wikipedia.org)