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  • cell
  • The main effects are the disappearance of the clear zone at the pollen tube tip and a thickening of the cell wall at the tip and at the pollen tube flanks. (springer.com)
  • This effect on cell wall formation is confirmed under the electron microscope: The vesicular zone in treated pollen tubes is reduced, numerous vesicular contents are irregularly integrated in the pollen tube wall not only in the tip, but over a long distance of the pollen tube wall. (springer.com)
  • 1997
  • Holdaway-Clarke, T.L. , Feijó, J.A. , Hackett, G.R. , Kunkel, J.G. , Hepler, P.K. 1997 Pollen tube growth and the intracellular cytosolic calcium gradient oscillate in phase while extracellular calcium influx is delayed. (wiley.com)
  • lily pollen tubes
  • Lovy-Wheeler A, Cardenas L, Kunkel JG, Hepler PK (2007) Differential organelle movement on the actin cytoskeleton in lily pollen tubes. (springer.com)
  • Here, growth of tobacco and lily pollen tubes is examined in greater temporal resolution using refraction-free high-resolution time-lapse differential interference contrast microscopy. (uva.nl)
  • Incorporation of new membrane and wall materials causes localized disruption at the cell surface that precedes the start of the growth cycle by 3.44 ± 0.39 s in tobacco, and 1.02 ± 0.01 s in lily pollen tubes. (uva.nl)
  • species
  • Cross-pollination, which is when the pollen of one plant fertilizes another plant of the same species, occurs in a huge number of plants, including corn, w. (reference.com)
  • We propose that lipids direct pollen-tube growth by controlling the flow of water to pollen in species with dry and wet stigmas. (ovid.com)
  • We found that LWHY2-1 pollen had significantly more reactive oxygen species and less ATP compared with the wild type, indicating an effect on mitochondrial respiration. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, imaging of actin filaments has shown that distinct actin structures form in pollen tubes across different species. (plantcell.org)
  • Pollen tubes elongate by tip growth, whereby new membrane components are incorporated into the plasmalemma and copious amounts of cell wall materials are secreted at the tip to support growth that can occur as rapidly as 1 cm/hr in some species. (plantcell.org)
  • Pollination
  • Wind pollination occurs when the pollen from flowers is transported by the wind. (reference.com)
  • Cross-pollination is the transport of pollen from a single plant to a different plant by insects or the wind. (reference.com)
  • Growth of the pollen tubes in the style and penetration into the nucellus as well as fruit set were more effective in cross-pollination than in open and self-pollination. (springer.com)
  • A ) Up-regulated genes in ovules crossed with WT (WT) and gcs1 / gcs1 ( gcs1 ) pollen compared with those in ovules without pollination (NPT) at 12, 24, and 48 HAP. (sciencemag.org)
  • actin
  • Chen C, Wong E, Vidali L, Estavillo A, Hepler PK, HM W, Cheung AY (2002) The regulation of actin organization by actin-depolymerizing factor in elongating pollen tubes. (springer.com)
  • Chen N, Qu X, Wu Y, Huang S (2009) Regulation of actin dynamics in pollen tubes: control of actin polymer level. (springer.com)
  • Su H, Zhu J, Cai C, Pei W, Wang J, Dong H, Ren H (2012) FIMBRIN1 is involved in lily pollen tube growth by stabilizing the actin fringe. (springer.com)
  • Kohno, T. & Shimmen, T. 1987 Ca 2+ -induced fragmentation of actin-filaments in pollen tubes. (wiley.com)
  • Actin cables in pollen tubes serve as molecular tracks for cytoplasmic streaming and organelle movement and are formed by actin bundling factors like villins and fimbrins. (plantcell.org)
  • Specifically, actin cables protrude into the extreme tips, and their longitudinal arrangement is disrupted in the shank of fim5 pollen tubes. (plantcell.org)
  • Additionally, loss of FIM5 function rendered pollen germination and tube growth hypersensitive to the actin-depolymerizing drug latrunculin B. In vitro biochemical analyses indicated that FIM5 exhibits actin bundling activity and stabilizes actin filaments. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, we propose that FIM5 regulates actin dynamics and organization during pollen germination and tube growth via stabilizing actin filaments and organizing them into higher-order structures. (plantcell.org)
  • ovules
  • For the pollen tube does grow dirrectly towards the ovules. (bio.net)
  • Pollen tubes are attracted by LURE peptides, which are produced from ovules, to bring about fertilization. (phys.org)
  • Using this method, we showed that pollen tubes growing through a cut style acquired a response capability in the medium by receiving a sufficient amount of a factor derived from mature ovules of Torenia. (uzh.ch)
  • fertilization
  • Plant biologists at ITbM have made a key discovery that the contents in pollen tubes alone can increase the size of seeds, without the need for fertilization. (phys.org)
  • Grazyna M. Bochenek , Bente Eriksen , First Come, First Served: Delayed Fertilization Does Not Enhance Pollen Competition in a Wind-Pollinated Tree,Fraxinus excelsiorL. (wiley.com)
  • plants
  • The pollen tubes of most plants contain two layers: an inner sheath of callose, which is a substance made out of sugars, and an outer coating of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. (reference.com)
  • Researchers at UZH have now discovered the key to how plants regulate pollen growth and seed formation. (phys.org)
  • To discover the role of the exudate, we tested selected compounds for their ability to act as functional substitutes for exudate in the initial stages of pollen-tube growth on transgenic stigmaless tobacco plants that did not produce exudate. (ovid.com)
  • Therefore, pollen tube growth is essential for reproduction in flowering plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The transgenic plants ( LWHY2 ) had very high mtDNA levels in pollen, more than 10 times more than in the wild type (ecotype Columbia-0). (plantphysiol.org)
  • however, reciprocal crosses with heterozygous plants showed reduced transmission of LWHY2-1 through the male and slower growth of LWHY2-1 pollen tubes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • LURE
  • In order to identify the exact receptor on the pollen tube for LURE, Tetsuya Higashiyama, a professor at Nagoya University and his collaborators at Tsinghua University who have expertise in structural biology of plant ligands and receptors, performed analyses of the complexes by X-ray crystallography. (eurekalert.org)
  • As a result, they were able to determine that LURE specifically binds to a protein receptor called PRK6 (pollen receptor-like kinase 6) on the pollen tube. (eurekalert.org)
  • This unique binding scheme between LURE and PRK6 appears to reflect the precise control mechanism of the direction of pollen tube growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our lab has worked intensively to identify the pollen tube attractant peptide LURE and its receptor protein PRK6, and this time, we were able to determine the crystal structure of the LURE bound complex to prove that PRK6 is the actual receptor of LURE," says Higashiyama. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we report that ovular methyl-glucuronosyl arabinogalactan (AMOR) induces competency of the pollen tube to respond to ovular attractant LURE peptides in Torenia fournieri. (uzh.ch)
  • transcriptome
  • Domenico Iaria, Adriana Chiappetta, and Innocenzo Muzzalupo, " De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Olea europaea L. to Identify Genes Involved in the Development of the Pollen Tube," The Scientific World Journal , vol. 2016, Article ID 4305252, 7 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • plant
  • New data on the pollen tube reflects its qualities as a biological model beyond its function as a carrier of sperm cells in plant reproduction. (waterstones.com)
  • These findings reveal that AtWHY2 affects mtDNA copy number in pollen and suggest that low mtDNA copy numbers might be the normal means by which plant cells maintain mitochondrial genetic information. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Accordingly, this swift growth of pollen tubes is essential for male reproductive success (Okusaka, & Hiratsuka, 2009) and for the subsequent plant development. (jyi.org)