• Plutonium(VI) sorption on the surface of well-characterized synthetic manganese-substituted goethite minerals (Fe 1−x Mn x OOH) was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. (degruyter.com)
  • The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy allows us to directly and unambiguously measure the oxidation state of plutonium in situ at the mineral surface. (degruyter.com)
  • Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements carried out on these samples showed that Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) upon contact with the mineral. (degruyter.com)
  • Furthermore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements show evidence of direct plutonium binding to the metal surface as an inner-sphere complex. (degruyter.com)
  • Nach Absorption in der Lunge verteilt sich Plutonium im Körper und wird im Wesentlichen in den Knochen, der Leber und den Lymphknoten des Atemtrakts angereichert. (bfs.de)
  • Another is that, to extract the plutonium, the fuel must be reprocessed, creating radioactive waste and potentially high radiation exposures. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because manganese is often found in the environment as a minor component associated with major mineral components, such as goethite, understanding the molecular-level interactions of plutonium with such substituted mineral phases is important for risk assessment purposes at radioactively contaminated sites and long-term underground radioactive waste repositories. (degruyter.com)
  • the half-lives of its naturally occurring isotopes range between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article is supported by WikiProject Elements , which gives a central approach to the chemical elements and their isotopes on Wikipedia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also reviews the persistent dangers in light of the Chernobyl accident and proliferation and environmental issues arising from the huge and growing stockpiles of weapons-usable plutonium in reactor spent fuel. (ieer.org)
  • Plutonium released during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, is the source of most of the plutonium in the environment worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • According to a recent Natural Resources Defense Council report(1), nuclear weapons with a destructive power of 1 kiloton can be built with as little as 1 kilogram of weapon grade plutonium(2). (ieer.org)
  • Plutonium has been found in at least 16 of the 1,689 current or former NPL sites. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, strict regulations make it unlikely that the number of sites at which plutonium is found would increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. (cdc.gov)
  • Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 give off alpha particles (sometimes referred to as alpha radiation) and transform into uranium-234 and uraniumâ€'235, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Die verschiedenen Plutoniumisotope werden mittels Alpha- oder Gammaspektrometrie und bei Plutonium-241 durch Messung der Betastrahlung nachgewiesen. (bfs.de)